Kawat Berduri di Hadapan Alpine

Kawat Berduri di Hadapan Alpine


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Kawat Berduri di Hadapan Alpine


Kesukaran bertempur di Pegunungan Alpen semasa Perang Dunia Pertama digambarkan dengan baik oleh bidang kawat berduri ini, menggantikan tanaman anggur di lereng bukit yang curam.


Sifat perang parit dan kehidupan di parit yang berhadapan dengan pengalaman tentera Bersekutu dan Jerman

Sumber B

Sebuah parit Inggeris berhampiran jalan Albert-Bapaume di Ovillers-la-Boisselle, Julai 1916 semasa Pertempuran Somme.
Lelaki itu berasal dari A Company, Batalion ke-11, The Cheshire Regiment.
(Sumber: Wikipedia)

Foto pengintipan udara dari parit yang bertentangan dan tanah tanpa manusia antara Loos dan Hulluch di Artois, Perancis, diambil pada jam 7.15 malam, 22 Julai 1917. Parit Jerman berada di kanan dan bawah, parit Inggeris berada di kiri atas. Garis menegak di sebelah kiri tengah menunjukkan jalan atau jalan sebelum perang.
(Sumber: Wikipedia)

  • Pada awal perang, negara-negara yang berperang mengharapkan perang pergerakan. Mereka tidak bersedia untuk perang parit.
  • Parit diharapkan menjadi perlindungan sementara bagi askar sehingga perang gerakan bermula lagi. Ketika perang berlarutan, mereka menjadi lebih kukuh dan kekal dalam pembinaan dan penampilan mereka.
  • Senjata yang digunakan dalam perang memberi kelebihan besar kepada pertahanan. Senapang mesin dan kawat berduri menjadikannya lebih mudah untuk mempertahankan garis parit daripada menyerang.
  • Sistem parit tidak sengaja dan berbeza di seluruh bahagian depan barat. Itu bergantung pada kawasan setempat dan bangunan yang ada di mana dan bagaimana parit akan digali.
  • Ketika peperangan parit berkembang, sistem parit menjadi lebih kompleks. Parit garis depan dihubungkan dengan parit sokongan dan parit simpanan oleh parit komunikasi. Mereka sering diberi nama jalan oleh tentera untuk memberi sedikit keakraban dan peringatan tentang kehidupan normal dalam situasi asing ini.
  • Pengeboman musuh menghancurkan parit. Mereka harus terus dipelihara dan dibina semula. Sekiranya wilayah baru diambil dari musuh parit baru segera digali. Parit digali dengan menggali, menyapu, atau membuat terowong.
  • Parit itu cukup dalam untuk seorang lelaki berdiri dengan selamat.
  • papan itik: untuk menjaga kaki tentera dari lumpur
  • sump: di bawah papan itik di mana air dan lumpur dapat berkumpul
  • firestep: platform yang dinaikkan untuk menembak di bahagian depan parit
  • beg pasir: untuk menguatkan dan menguatkan parit dan menyerap tembakan senjata musuh
  • kawat berduri: untuk mengelakkan musuh menyerang parit dengan mudah
  • menggali dan lubang funk: untuk tidur
  • rak peluru
  • rehat siku: membantu menembak di bahagian depan parit
  • parapet: bahagian yang dinaikkan di depan parit, diperkuat dengan beg pasir, untuk melindungi tentera dari tembakan musuh dan memberikan perlindungan ketika menembak musuh
  • parados: bahagian yang dinaikkan di bahagian belakang parit untuk melindungi tentera daripada letupan di belakang parit
  • Jenis parit:
    • barisan hadapan parit: askar melepaskan tembakan ke arah musuh tanpa musuh dan mempertahankan serangan musuh. Askar pergi 'dari atas' dari parit garis depan semasa serangan. Parit garis depan mengandungi tiang pemerhatian dan sarang mesingan.
    • sokongan parit: menyediakan tempat untuk askar barisan depan untuk berundur semasa pengeboman artileri
    • rizab parit: untuk pasukan simpanan
    • komunikasi parit: parit melintasi yang menghubungkan garis depan, sokongan dan parit simpanan
    • getah: melintasi parit digali ke tanah tanpa manusia untuk mendirikan pos mendengar

    • Jerman: Maxim.
    • Inggeris: Vickers. Boleh menembak lebih dari 450 pusingan seminit. Berat dan tidak dapat digerakkan dengan mudah untuk menyokong pasukan yang maju.
    • Pistol 75mm - jarak 8 km.
    • Pistol 200 dan 250 mm - jarak 20 km.
    • "Big Bertha" - Howitzer Jerman 420mm. Digunakan untuk mengebom Paris dari belakang garis Jerman. Dijuluki dengan nama anak perempuan Alfred Krupp, perindustrian yang mengeluarkannya.
    • Ypres dihancurkan oleh pengeboman artileri Jerman walaupun tidak dihuni oleh Jerman pada tahap perang apa pun.


    Bertha Besar

    • Granat - mudah alih - dapat menghapuskan sarang mesingan musuh.
    • Pembuang api
    • Mortar
    • periskop - bukan senjata tetapi alat untuk memerhatikan garis depan musuh
    • Pertama kali digunakan oleh orang Jerman pada tahun 1915 di Ypres.
    • Tabung gas ditembakkan ke parit musuh, di mana mereka meletup dan mengeluarkan gas.
    • Tujuannya adalah untuk membersihkan parit supaya tentera yang maju dapat dengan mudah mendudukinya.
    • Adalah senjata yang tidak boleh dipercayai kerana angin bergeser.
    • Jenis gas: klorin, mustard, phosgene, chloropicrin, asid prussic.
    • Kesan gas: membakar kulit dan tekak (mustard) memusnahkan paru-paru (phosgene) menyerang sistem saraf (asid prussik)
    • Pembangunan topeng gas berkesan meneutralkan kesan senjata.

    Membengkokkan dua kali, seperti pengemis tua di bawah karung,
    Knock-kneed, batuk seperti kain pelikat, kita mengutuk lumpur,
    Hingga suar menghantui kita berpaling,
    Dan ke arah rehat kami yang jauh mula berjalan.
    Lelaki berbaris tidur. Banyak yang kehilangan kasut,
    Tetapi lemas, berlumuran darah. Semua lumpuh, semua buta
    Mabuk dengan keletihan pekak hingga ke hulu
    Kerang gas jatuh perlahan di belakang.

    Gas! GAS! Cepat, budak lelaki! - Ekstasi meraba-raba
    Memasang topi keledar yang canggung tepat pada waktunya,
    Tetapi seseorang masih menjerit dan tersandung
    Dan flound'ring seperti orang dalam api atau kapur. -
    Meredup panel berkabus dan cahaya hijau pekat,
    Seperti di bawah laut hijau, saya melihat dia lemas.

    Dalam semua impian saya sebelum pandangan saya yang tidak berdaya
    Dia terjun ke arah saya, tersendat, tersedak, lemas.

    Sekiranya dalam mimpi yang menyakitkan hati, anda juga boleh mondar-mandir
    Di belakang gerabak yang kami bawa,
    Dan perhatikan mata putih yang berkerut di wajahnya,
    Wajahnya yang tergantung, seperti syaitan yang sakit dosa,
    Sekiranya anda dapat mendengar, di setiap sentakan, darah
    Datang berkumur dari paru-paru yang busuk
    Pahit seperti pelawak
    Dari keji, luka yang tidak dapat disembuhkan pada lidah yang tidak bersalah, -
    Kawan saya, anda tidak akan memberitahu dengan semangat tinggi
    Kepada anak-anak yang bersemangat untuk mendapat kemuliaan yang terdesak,
    Kebohongan lama: Dulce et decorum est
    Pro patria mori.

    • Dibangunkan oleh British dan pertama kali digunakan di Somme pada tahun 1916 (Mark I). Pada mulanya tidak berkesan - terlalu perlahan, membebankan, sukar untuk dikendalikan. Menjadi lumpur dan boleh keluar dari parit. Panas dan bising - menjadi perangkap maut bagi tentera.
    • Pertama kali digunakan dengan berkesan di Cambrai pada November 1917. 400 tangki Mark IV digunakan untuk memecahkan garis Jerman.
    • Serangan besar: Terdapat sejumlah serangan besar yang dirancang untuk menerobos barisan musuh dan mengakhiri kebuntuan dan / atau menghancurkan musuh (gesekan). Lihat bahagian seterusnya dan Verdun, Somme dan Passchendaele.
    • Pertahanan: Bagi sebahagian besar garis parit, pertahanan adalah keutamaan. Ini melibatkan pembentukan sistem parit yang kukuh dengan sarang senapang mesin yang diletakkan dengan baik.
    • Saps: Saps digali ke tanah milik manusia untuk mendirikan pos mendengar sehingga rancangan musuh dapat ditemukan.
    • Serangan parit malam di parit musuh ditujukan untuk menangkap tahanan kerana mengetahui rancangan musuh dan memastikan musuh tetap berada di jari kaki mereka. Ini melibatkan merangkak melewati daratan tanpa manusia, menyelam di kawah atau tidak bergerak ketika suar naik, memotong kawat berduri musuh dan membuat serangan mengejut di parit garis depan musuh.


    Penggunaan periskop di parit barisan pertama Perancis, 1915
    (Sumber: Wikipedia)


    Askar Perancis, pemerhati, di parit, Hirtzbach Woods, Haut-Rhin, Perancis, dengan topi keledar Adrian
    16 Jun 1917
    (Sumber: Foto Warna Perang Dunia I)


    Tentara Batalion 1, The Lancashire Fusiliers memperbaiki bayonet sebelum serangan ke Beaumont Hamel. Mereka mengenakan 'perintah memerangi', dengan barang kemas di tempat bungkus, dan dengan lembaran dasar yang digulung diikat ke tali pinggang di bawah timah berantakan yang berisi ransum. Pegawai di latar depan (kanan) memakai pakaian seragam pangkat lain agar tidak terlalu jelas.
    Tanda parit menunjukkan 'King St'
    Tarikh: 1 Julai 1916
    (Sumber: Wikipedia)


    Pertempuran Somme dalam gambar, 1916

    Pertempuran Somme, juga dikenali sebagai Somme Offensive, adalah salah satu pertempuran terbesar dalam Perang Dunia Pertama. Ia diperjuangkan oleh tentera Inggeris dan Perancis menentang Empayar Jerman dan berlaku antara 1 Julai hingga 18 November 1916 di kedua-dua belah hulu Sungai Somme di Perancis. Lebih dari satu juta lelaki cedera atau terbunuh, menjadikannya salah satu pertempuran paling berdarah dalam sejarah manusia.

    Pada bulan Disember 1915, komandan Sekutu telah bertemu untuk membincangkan strategi untuk tahun berikutnya dan bersetuju untuk melancarkan serangan bersama Perancis dan Inggeris di wilayah Sungai Somme pada musim panas tahun 1916. Lokasi ini dipilih terutamanya kerana di mana Perancis dan Inggeris pasukan di Front Barat bertemu. Tetapi serangan Jerman ke atas Perancis di Verdun pada Februari 1916 memaksa Britain untuk memimpin serangan Somme.

    Pengeboman awal selama tujuh hari bermula pada 24 Jun 1916 dalam usaha memotong wayar berduri di hadapan garis Jerman dan memusnahkan pertahanan parit dan artileri. Pada minggu menjelang pertempuran, lebih dari 1.5 juta peluru ditembakkan.

    British percaya bahawa Jerman akan hancur dengan pengeboman besar-besaran ini sehingga tentera Inggeris tidak dapat menyeberangi tanah orang dan menduduki parit Jerman. Haig mengarahkan Jeneral Rawlinson untuk mempersiapkan & # 8216a kemajuan pesat & # 8217. Walau bagaimanapun, senjata Inggeris tersebar terlalu tipis untuk mencapai tujuan ini dan sekitar dua pertiga dari peluru itu adalah serpihan, yang sebahagian besarnya tidak berkesan terhadap jalan keluar konkrit. Untuk memburukkan lagi keadaan, dianggarkan sebanyak 30% cengkerang gagal meletup. Artileri Britain juga tidak dapat meneutralkan artileri Jerman, yang akan terbukti kritikal pada hari pertama pertempuran.

    Pada minggu menjelang pertempuran, lebih dari 1.5 juta peluru ditembakkan.

    Pada 1 Julai 1916, tembakan pertama dilancarkan untuk menjadi salah satu pertunangan paling berdarah dalam sejarah manusia, Pertempuran Somme selama 141 hari. Di kebanyakan tempat pengeboman artileri gagal memotong kawat berduri Jerman atau merosakkan kubu pertahanan & # 8217. Beberapa komandan kanan, tidak yakin bahawa askar-askar New Armies yang tidak berpengalaman (yang baru direkrut) dapat mengatasi taktik yang canggih, memerintahkan infanteri untuk maju dalam barisan panjang dan dekat. Penembak mesin Jerman muncul dari tempat perlindungan mereka yang utuh dan memotong infanteri Inggeris yang akan datang.

    Satu-satunya kejayaan Inggeris yang ketara adalah di selatan di mana, dengan menggunakan taktik yang lebih imajinatif dan dibantu oleh artileri Perancis di sebelah kanan mereka, Bahagian ke-18 dan ke-30 mengambil semua objektif mereka dan Bahagian ke-7 menangkap Mametz. Di Thiepval, Bahagian ke-36 (Ulster) merampas Schwaben Redoubt tetapi terpaksa menarik diri kerana tidak maju ke kiri dan kanan. Di tempat lain, beberapa infanteri Inggeris berhasil memasuki kedudukan Jerman tetapi terpaksa menarik diri dalam menghadapi tentangan yang ditentukan dan tembakan artileri Jerman yang besar.

    Tambang 45,000 paun (2 tan) di bawah kedudukan barisan depan Jerman di Hawthorn Redoubt ditembak 10 minit sebelum serangan di Beaumont Hamel pada hari pertama Pertempuran Somme. Lombong itu meninggalkan kawah selebar 130 kaki (40 m) dan kedalaman 58 kaki (18 m). 1 Julai 1916.

    Keuntungan terhad ini menelan 57,470 korban Britain - yang mana 19,240 terbunuh - menjadikan hari pertama Somme paling berdarah dalam sejarah ketenteraan Britain. Tentera Darat Keenam Perancis mengalami 1,590 korban dan Tentera ke-2 Jerman mengalami kerugian 10,000-12,000. Tetapi tidak ada masalah untuk menangguhkan serangan dengan Perancis yang masih terlibat dengan Verdun. British tidak mencapai kejayaan cepat yang telah dirancang oleh kepemimpinan tentera mereka dan Somme menjadi pertempuran yang mengalami kebuntuan.

    Kurangnya penembusan yang menentukan pada hari pembukaan mengakibatkan penghentian atau & # 8216 kehabisan & # 8217 pertempuran selama dua bulan berikutnya. Selebihnya pertempuran dicirikan oleh serangan Inggeris yang tidak henti-henti dan serangan balas Jerman yang sama-sama ditentukan.

    Pasukan Britain pergi & # 8220 di puncak & # 8221 dalam adegan yang dipentaskan untuk filem berita dalam pertempuran. 1916.

    Pada pertengahan bulan September, British telah siap menyerang barisan pertahanan ketiga Jerman dengan senjata baru, kereta kebal. Objektif untuk 15 September termasuk penangkapan pertahanan Jerman ke Tentera Darat Keempat di Flers dan penyitaan Gueudecourt, Lesboeufs dan Morval. Canadian Corps of Gough & # 8217s Reserve Army akan mengambil Courcelette.

    Dari 49 kereta kebal yang ada untuk menyokong infanteri, hanya 36 yang mencapai titik awal, walaupun ini menimbulkan kerisauan di kalangan pembela Jerman. Flers dan Courcelette jatuh tetapi kenaikan pada 15 September hanya terhad kepada 2.500 ela (2.286 m) di depan sejauh tiga batu (4.8km). Jerman mengekalkan Morval dan Lesboeufs selama sepuluh hari lagi dan serangan terhenti.

    Tindakan terakhir serangan Somme berlaku di sektor Ancre dari 13 hingga 19 November. Operasi itu diteruskan, walaupun ada penangguhan berulang kali, sebahagian besarnya kerana diharapkan kejayaan akhir Britain dapat menimbulkan kesan yang baik pada persidangan antara Sekutu di Chantilly pada 15 November. Walaupun Jerman dilemahkan, Sekutu gagal mencapai semua objektif mereka dan perang akan berterusan selama dua tahun lagi.

    Men of the Royal Irish Rifles berehat pada waktu pembukaan Battle of the Somme. 1 Julai 1916.

    British yang selamat dari pertempuran telah memperoleh pengalaman dan BEF belajar bagaimana melakukan perang industri besar-besaran, yang telah diperjuangkan oleh tentera benua sejak tahun 1914. Kekuatan benua telah memulakan perang dengan tentera tetap dan simpanan yang terlatih, yang membuang-buang aset. Putera Mahkota Rupprecht dari Bavaria menulis, & # 8220Apa yang tersisa dari infantri Jerman yang dilatih perdamaian kelas satu telah dibelanjakan di medan perang & # 8221. Perang gesekan adalah strategi logik untuk Britain menentang Jerman, yang juga berperang dengan Perancis dan Rusia. Sebuah aliran pemikiran berpendapat bahawa Pertempuran Somme memberikan tekanan yang tidak pernah terjadi sebelumnya kepada tentera Jerman dan bahawa setelah pertempuran itu, pihaknya tidak dapat menggantikan korban yang serupa, yang menjadikannya tentera.

    British dan Perancis telah maju sekitar 9 mi (9,7 km) di Somme, di depan 16 mi (26 km) dengan kos 419,654 hingga 432,000 orang Britain dan kira-kira 200,000 korban Perancis, berbanding 465,181 hingga 500,000 atau mungkin juga 600,000 Jerman korban jiwa. Sehingga tahun 1930-an, pandangan dominan dalam pertempuran dalam penulisan berbahasa Inggeris adalah bahawa pertempuran itu adalah kemenangan yang sukar untuk melawan lawan yang berani, berpengalaman dan dipimpin dengan baik. Winston Churchill membantah cara pertempuran itu dilakukan pada bulan Ogos 1916, Lloyd George ketika Perdana Menteri sering mengkritik perang gesekan dan mengutuk pertempuran itu dalam memoarnya setelah perang. Pada tahun 1930-an ortodoksi baru & # 8220mud, darah dan kesia-siaan & # 8221 muncul dan mendapat lebih banyak penekanan pada tahun 1960-an ketika peringatan 50 tahun Perang Besar diperingati.

    Pasukan Divisyen 34 Britain maju pada hari pertama pertempuran.

    Parit Inggeris, dikendalikan oleh batalion ke-11, The Cheshire Regiment, berhampiran La Boisselle.

    Depot artileri di belakang barisan Jerman. 1916.

    Tembakan artileri menerangi langit semasa serangan di Beaumont Hamel. 2 Julai 1916.

    Askar Britain yang terluka kembali dari barisan depan.

    Tentera berkuda India tentera Inggeris. 1916.

    Mametz Wood adalah objektif Bahagian ke-38 (Welsh) pada Pertempuran Somme. Bahagian itu mengambil 4,000 mangsa dengan menangkap kayu.

    Askar duduk di parit kayu yang disebut Des Fermes di Somme.

    Tentera Jerman membawa peralatan senapang Lewis.

    Lelaki bertopeng gas dari Machine Gun Corps Britain dengan senapang mesin Vickers.

    Pandangan udara dari serangan Perancis.

    Seorang tentera Britain menggayakan luka tahanan Jerman berhampiran Bernafay Wood. 19 Julai 1916.

    Seorang askar Perancis mengintip di tepi parit.

    Pasukan Kanada membetulkan bayonet sebelum melangkah ke puncak untuk menyerang kedudukan Jerman.

    Telefonis lapangan Jerman menyampaikan permintaan artileri dari barisan hadapan.

    Piper dari Seaforth Highlanders ke-7 memimpin empat orang Briged ke-26 kembali dari parit selepas serangan di Longueval. 14 Julai 1916.

    Askar menyeberangi sungai Ancre semasa serangan Sekutu di Thiepval Ridge. September, 1916.

    Tahanan Jerman membawa warga Britain yang cedera semasa serangan di Trones Wood.

    Askar-askar Britain bergerak di bawah gas dan asap sambil berhenti di barisan Jerman hingga ke Serre dan Thiepval. September, 1916.

    Lelaki dari Bahagian 1 Anzac, ada yang memakai topi keledar Jerman, berpose untuk kamera setelah bertempur di dekat Pozieres Ridge. 23 Julai 1916.

    Lelaki dari Rejimen Sempadan berehat di dugout cetek berhampiran Thiepval Wood. Ogos 1916.

    Howitzer berukuran 6 inci diangkut melalui lumpur berhampiran Pozieres. September, 1916.

    Artileri Siege Battery ke-39 beraksi di Lembah Fricourt-Mametz. Ogos 1916.

    Seorang lelaki membina rintangan kawat berduri di Somme. September, 1916.

    Bala bantuan melintasi barisan depan Jerman lama semasa pendahuluan menuju Flers. 15 September 1916.

    Sebuah tangki Mark I terletak di sebelah utara Bouleaux Wood pada hari tangki mula-mula beraksi.

    Askar berkumpul di dekat tangki Mark I di Flers. 17 September 1916.

    Pada pertengahan bulan September, British telah siap menyerang barisan pertahanan ketiga Jerman dengan senjata baru, kereta kebal.

    Askar Inggeris makan catuan panas di Lembah Ancre. Oktober 1916.

    Kuda membawa peluru ke hadapan dalam lumpur dalam di sepanjang Jalan Lesboeufs di luar Flers. November 1916.

    Sebuah meriam Jerman terkubur di bawah pokok-pokok yang tercabut di Louage Wood semasa serangan Bersekutu. 10 Oktober 1916.

    Seorang tentera Jerman berjalan melalui jalan-jalan Peronne yang hancur. November 1916.


    Foto Terlarang Mengungkapkan Bagaimana Kehidupan Di Hawaii Seperti Pearl Harbor

    Bukan rahsia lagi bahawa serangan 7 Disember 1941 di Pearl Harbor, yang mengorbankan lebih dari 2.000 orang Amerika, mengubah arah sejarah Amerika Syarikat dan seluruh dunia.

    Tetapi juga secara dramatis mengubah identiti pulau syurga Hawaii, mengubah kehidupan sehari-hari bagi orang-orang yang tinggal di sana dan menghentikan pelancongan, salah satu industri terpenting di pulau itu, berhenti.

    Beberapa jam selepas serangan itu, Hawaii, wilayah A.S. pada masa itu, diletakkan di bawah undang-undang tentera, dan semua penduduk pulau itu berada di bawah pemerintahan diktator tentera A.S., menurut sejarawan Honolulu Bishop Museum, DeSoto Brown.

    Oleh kerana Jepun-Amerika merangkumi 37 peratus populasi Hawaii, tidak mungkin tentera memenjarakan mereka semua, kata Brown kepada The Huffington Post. Sebaliknya, semua penduduk Hawaii - berkulit putih, asli Hawaii, Jepun, Filipina, Cina - terpaksa hidup di bawah peraturan ketenteraan yang ketat.

    "Semua orang berada di bawah undang-undang tentera dan diperlakukan sama tidak adil kerana tentera tidak dapat menyasarkan hanya orang Jepun, yang sangat penting bagi ekonomi," kata Brown.

    Bagaimanapun, penduduk Jepun-Amerika telah lama bertapak di Hawaii sebagai pemilik perniagaan, guru dan pemimpin masyarakat. Tanpa mereka, tambah Brown, ekonomi Hawaii akan runtuh.

    Di bawah undang-undang tentera, kehidupan di Hawaii dibatasi secara dramatik, menurut Brown. Segera setelah serangan itu, orang awam diperintahkan oleh tentera untuk menggali lubang untuk tempat perlindungan bom sementara dan diperintahkan untuk meletakkan kawat berduri di sekitar segalanya, termasuk pantai, stesen pam air, pemasangan elektrik dan bangunan pemerintah.

    Walaupun mereka bebas menjalani kehidupan normal pada siang hari, penduduk Hawaii terpaksa menutup tingkap mereka, dan perintah berkurung melarang orang awam keluar di malam hari.

    Semua elektrik mesti dimatikan setelah matahari terbenam, dan tentera menguatkuasakan perintah berkurung setiap malam. Mana-mana orang awam yang tidak dibenarkan keluar selepas berjam-jam menghadapi risiko ditembak. Sekiranya orang awam dibenarkan memandu selepas waktu bekerja untuk tujuan rasmi, mereka diminta untuk mengecat lampu depan kereta mereka dengan warna hitam.

    Makanan di pulau itu dijamin kepada keluarga. Terdapat larangan minuman keras, dan bar ditutup. Hotel-hotel tepi pantai Waikiki yang ikonik, pernah berkembang dengan pelancong dan penduduk tempatan, ditutup kepada orang ramai dan diambil alih oleh tentera.

    Tentera malah melarang orang awam Hawaii mengambil gambar dari mana-mana kawasan pantai pulau itu (untuk mengelakkan orang Jepun mencari tempat masuk) dan apa sahaja yang mempunyai gambaran berkaitan perang atau ketenteraan. Akibatnya, para pegawai meninjau dan menyita setiap gambar yang mengandungi kawat berduri, pantai atau pangkalan tentera.

    Peraturan ketenteraan yang keras di Hawaii berakhir hampir tiga tahun setelah serangan Pearl Harbor, tetapi, menurut Brown, pulau-pulau itu berubah selamanya.

    Perlakuan buruk penduduk di Hawaii memicu kes membawa pulau-pulau menjadi kenegaraan. Dan tentera terus mengekalkan kubu kuat di Hawaii, dengan setiap cabang tentera ditempatkan di sana hari ini.

    Sebagai sejarawan yang mengkhususkan diri dalam Perang Dunia II dan serangan di Pearl Harbour, Brown telah mengumpulkan banyak gambar seludup yang difoto di Hawaii walaupun ada tentera.

    Sebilangan besar gambar ini dipamerkan di Bishop Museum di Honolulu untuk ulang tahun ke-75 serangan yang dahsyat itu.

    Di bawah ini, lihat foto terlarang dan memorabilia Perang Dunia II lain yang mengungkapkan bagaimana kehidupan di Hawaii bagi mereka yang hidup pada hari itu "yang akan hidup dalam ketakutan," 7 Disember 1941.


    Kawat Berduri di Hadapan Alpine - Sejarah

    Oleh Eric Niderost

    Komando tinggi Tentera Rusia Imperial, yang dikenali sebagai Stavka, bertemu pada 14 April 1916, di Mogilev di Belarus untuk membincangkan kemungkinan tindakan ofensif terhadap Jerman dan sekutu Austro-Hungaria mereka di Front Timur. Ketua Staf Jeneral Stavka Jeneral Mikhail Alekseyev adalah penceramah utama dalam perhimpunan itu. Antara pegawai tinggi lain yang menghadiri perjumpaan itu adalah Jeneral Dmitri Shuvaev, menteri perang Rusia, Grand Duke Sergei Mikhailovich, inspektor jeneral artileri dan Laksamana A.I Ruskin, ketua kakitangan tentera laut.

    Nicholas II juga hadir, tidak hanya sebagai tentera dan autokrat, tetapi juga sebagai panglima tertinggi semua angkatan bersenjata Rusia. Banyak orang secara peribadi menganggap pelantikannya sendiri sebagai pimpinan tertinggi adalah bencana yang tidak dapat disangkal, seperti yang terjadi setelah serangkaian kekalahan Rusia di tangan orang Jerman. Nicholas tidak mempunyai pengalaman ketenteraan atau latihan dalam perang, dan eksploitasi bela dirinya hanya terbatas pada memakai seragam yang rumit dan memberi hormat dalam perarakan dan ulasan.

    Nicholas mempengerusikan mesyuarat ini tetapi mengatakan sedikit dan tetap begitu pasif, dia pasti kelihatan seperti sandiwara. Orang yang paling penting dalam pertemuan itu adalah tiga komandan depan, kerana mereka adalah orang yang akan ditugaskan untuk membuat pesanan Stavka menjadi kenyataan. Jenderal Aleksei Kuropatkin memerintahkan Front Utara, Jenderal Aleksei Evert memerintahkan Front Barat Laut, dan Jenderal Aleksei Brusilov memerintahkan Front Barat Daya.

    Suasana di dalam ruangan itu adalah pesimisme dan kesuraman, walaupun tidak ada yang bersedia meminta Rusia untuk bertugas di Jerman. Sejak tercetusnya perang pada tahun 1914, Rusia dengan rela hati mengambil alih peran sebagai domba korban, yang disembelih di mezbah solidariti Sekutu. Pada bulan Agustus 1914, Rusia telah menyerang Jerman sebelum waktunya sebelum ia memiliki kesempatan untuk menggerakkan sepenuhnya ketika orang-orang Perancis bersikap keras di Front Barat. Sekutu-sekutu Gallic mereka telah meminta mereka untuk melakukannya, dan orang-orang Rusia mematuhi pencerobohan tergesa-gesa ke Prusia Timur.

    Akibatnya, Jerman terpaksa memindahkan pasukan ke Timur, faktor utama ketika mereka dikalahkan di Marne dan tempat serangan mereka terhenti. Rusia telah membantu menyelamatkan Perancis, tetapi dengan kos yang teruk. Orang-orang Rusia benar-benar dikalahkan di Tannenberg pada bulan Ogos, dan oleh beberapa anggaran mengorbankan sebanyak 100,000 korban.

    Czar Nicholas II memegang ikon pasukan Rusia yang berangkat ke Front Timur pada tahun 1914. Semasa Serangan Brusilov, para imam Ortodoks membawa ikon dan sepanduk agama untuk memotivasi pasukan yang sangat beragama.

    Lebih teruk lagi untuk diikuti. Orang-orang Jerman melancarkan Serangan Gorlice-Tarnow pada tahun 1915, memaksa orang-orang Rusia menjadi yang kemudian disebut "Retret Besar." Warsaw jatuh, dan Poland Rusia dijajah oleh tentera Jerman. Ketika minggu-minggu berlalu, dan kekalahan menumpuk pada kekalahan, sepertinya tidak ada yang dapat memperlambat juggernaut Jerman, kecuali topografi.

    Pasukan Tentera Imperial Rusia, berdarah dan hancur, tetap optimis ketika mereka bergerak ke arah timur. Sebilangan besar dari mereka - bahkan tentera tani yang buta huruf yang memenuhi barisan - merasa selesa dengan taktik tradisional Rusia untuk berdagang masa. Pada tahun 1812 Napoleon telah terpikat ke kawasan pedalaman Rusia yang luas, sebuah gerakan yang menanam benih kehancurannya kemudian.

    "Pengunduran itu akan berlanjutan sejauh - dan selama - yang diperlukan," kata Nicholas kepada duta besar Perancis. "Orang-orang Rusia sebulat suara dalam kehendak mereka untuk menaklukkan seperti mereka pada tahun 1812." Lelucon Rusia mengatakan bahawa tentera tsar akan mundur ke Ural, di sempadan Eropah dan Asia. Pada masa itu, jarak dan kemerosotan akan membawa pasukan musuh untuk masing-masing satu orang. Orang Austria akan menyerah, menurut kebiasaan, dan orang Jerman akan dibunuh.

    Walaupun begitu, rasa perang dan sia-sia perang mula meresap ke dalam jiwa Rusia. Ini sebenarnya bukan tahun 1812, akan memakan masa lebih banyak daripada musim sejuk Rusia untuk membuang orang Jerman dan rakan muda mereka orang Austria. Kuasa Pusat telah menyebabkan dua juta korban pada tentera Rusia, walaupun Rusia belum tersingkir dari perang. "Beruang Rusia lolos dari cengkaman kami, tidak diragukan pendarahan dari lebih dari satu luka, tetapi masih tidak sampai mati," kata Marsekal Lapangan Jerman Paul von Hindenburg.

    Mesyuarat di Mogilev diwarnai oleh peristiwa-peristiwa di masa lalu. Suasana suram, dan mungkin ada rasa déjà vu ketika Jeneral Alekseyev mengatakan bahawa Rusia telah bersetuju untuk melakukan serangan musim bunga, sebahagian besarnya untuk menyokong perjalanan Inggeris di Somme yang dijadualkan pada musim panas 1916. Ia akan terhad dan melibatkan Bahagian Utara dan Barat Laut.

    Stavka membayangkan serangan dua cabang di sepanjang Sungai Divna, tetapi Jeneral Evert dan Kuropatkin, yang akan melaksanakan proposal itu, membantah keras. Mereka menunjukkan bahawa hampir sebulan sebelum serangan di sekitar Tasik Narotch telah menjadi kegagalan. Tidak kurang dari 300.000 orang Rusia tidak dapat memperoleh yang terbaik dari 50.000 orang Jerman, dan usaha itu runtuh di lautan lumpur, darah, dan suhu beku. Orang-orang Rusia menderita lebih dari 100,000 korban, termasuk 10,000 yang mati akibat pendedahan.

    Jeneral Rusia Aleksei Brusilov (kiri) dan Jeneral Austria Conrad von Hotzendorff.

    Alekseyev menolak bantahan mereka. Sambil mengakui bahawa kerugian Rusia sangat besar, dia memerhatikan bahawa sebanyak 800.000 tentera baru akan memenuhi barisan yang habis. Ini memberi pasukan Rusia lebih dari cukup untuk melancarkan serangan baru. Evert dan Kuropatkin tidak yakin, tetapi mereka dengan enggan menyetujui serangan terhad.

    Jeneral Aleksei Brusilov kemudian bercakap. Sexagenarian yang botak, dengan mata yang tajam dan kumisnya yang panjang, nipis, masih tampak seperti pasukan berkuda yang gagah dulu. Dia terakhir kali melihat tugas aktif dalam Perang Rusia-Turki tahun 1877-1878 di mana dia pernah bertugas dengan cemerlang. Empat dekad adalah masa yang lama untuk tidak hadir di medan perang, tetapi dia menebusnya dengan pikiran terbuka dan bertanya yang menunjukkan kecemerlangan jika tidak genius. Brusilov mempelajari teknik ketenteraan Eropah Barat dan tahu bagaimana menyesuaikannya dengan iklim, geografi, dan budaya yang berbeza.

    "Saya mencadangkan agar kita melancarkan serangan di Front Barat Daya untuk menyokong rancangan itu," kata Brusilov. "Kami memiliki keunggulan numerik daripada Kekuasaan Pusat mengapa tidak menggunakannya untuk keuntungan kami, dan menyerang semua bidang secara serentak? Saya hanya meminta izin nyata untuk menyerang di depan saya pada masa yang sama dengan rakan-rakan saya. "

    Setelah Brusilov selesai, terdiam. Dia mengusulkan serangan yang akan berlangsung selama beratus-ratus batu, dan mayoritas petugas di sekitar ruangan itu sedikit yakin bahawa Tentara Kekaisaran Rusia dapat melakukan serangan skala besar. Brusilov mempunyai pendapat lain. Dengan persiapan yang teliti, persenjataan yang cukup, dan perubahan taktik, dia yakin orang Rusia dapat mencapai kejayaan dan sekurang-kurangnya mengetuk Austria-Hungary keluar dari perang.

    Sebuah syarikat Rejimen Ke-7 Pengejar Tentera Imperial Rusia.

    Brusilov tahu bahawa kekalahan dahsyat yang dialami oleh Rusia di tangan orang Jerman bukanlah kesalahan askar Rusia biasa. Tentera Rusia terdiri terutamanya dari petani yang direkrut, yang nenek moyang terdekatnya telah menjadi hamba yang tertindas. Mereka tabah, gagah berani, dan dapat menahan kesusahan dan luka yang mungkin melemahkan atau membunuh seorang tentera Barat. Diberikan petani buta huruf, tetapi mereka tidak perlu membaca dan menulis untuk melakukan serangan yang berjaya. Bagi jutaan lelaki yang memenuhi pangkat, kepercayaan yang mendalam dan taat dalam agama Kristian Ortodoks adalah semua yang mereka perlukan. Dan setelah Tuhan, iman mereka ada di dalam tsar, yang akan memimpin mereka menuju kemenangan melawan penjajah Teutonik.

    Alekseyev cuba menghalang Brusilov, dengan mengatakan bahawa dia tidak boleh mengharapkan sokongan artileri dan tentunya tidak ada bantuan. Brusilov mengatakan bahawa dia menerima syarat tersebut dan masih mahu meneruskannya. Alekseyev, tunduk kepada yang tidak dapat dielakkan, memberikan persetujuan bersyarat kepada rancangan Brusilov.

    Selepas pertemuan itu, Jenderal Nicolai Ivanov, mantan komandan Front Barat Daya dan pada waktu itu seorang pengawas kepada Czar Nicholas, melakukan upaya terakhir untuk menghentikan Brusilov dengan menarik langsung kepada tsar. Nicholas, biasanya tidak tegas dalam perkara tersebut, enggan campur tangan. "Saya rasa tidak wajar saya mengubah keputusan Majlis Perang," kata Nicholas. "Bawa dengan Alekseyev."

    Rusia telah memulakan perang pada tahun 1914 yang tidak dilengkapi dengan konflik moden. Negara ini masih berkembang, dengan revolusi perindustriannya pada fasa remaja, dan perang moden menuntut pengeluaran besar-besaran. Pada masa itu, kilang Rusia hanya menghasilkan 1.300 peluru sehari, yang berjumlah 35.000 sebulan, sementara artileri Rusia menggunakan 45.000 peluru sehari. Tentera Rusia melengkapkan infanteri dengan senapang model Mosin 7.62 mm 1891. Itu adalah senjata yang mencukupi, tetapi pengeluaran ketinggalan tahun pertama. Beberapa rekrut secara harfiah dikirim ke depan tanpa senjata dengan anggapan bahawa mereka mungkin dapat mengambil senjata dari rakan yang mati atau cedera.

    Pada awal tahun 1916 keadaan telah bertambah baik. Kilang Rusia menghasilkan 100,000 senapang sebulan. Senjata tambahan diperoleh dari Sekutu. Walaupun masih ada kekurangan, Brusilov yakin bahawa perancangan yang tepat dapat meneutralkan masalah tersebut. Untuk satu perkara, serangan artileri sebelum serangan cenderung sangat panjang. Ini membolehkan musuh mengetahui dengan tepat di mana pukulan akan jatuh. Dengan pengetahuan tersebut, musuh dapat mengalihkan cadangan ke tempat yang terancam.

    Latihan infanteri Rusia pada awal konflik.

    Brusilov bermaksud memerintahkan rentetan yang lebih pendek untuk mengejutkan musuh. Austrian commanders would be kept guessing as to what the brief bombardments really meant. On the one hand, it might mean that a major offensive was planned. On the other hand, it might simply be a diversion to distract from a major assault at some other point.

    Offensive action in World War I was understandingly obsessed by the concept of puncturing an enemy’s line in order to bring about a breakthrough that would lead to victory. Conventionally, that meant a sledgehammer blow on one specific, narrow point on the enemy’s trench line, and then pouring in as many reserves as you could once that breakthrough was achieved.

    Brusilov did not entirely abandon the narrow, overwhelming thrust concept, just modified and expanded it. There would be not one push, but four—one for each Russian army under his command. What is more, the attacks would be launched simultaneously. “I considered it absolutely vital to develop an attack at many different points,” said Brusilov.

    Brusilov was nothing if not thorough. He was blessed with a meticulous attention to detail. Nothing seemed to escape his notice. Russian artillery units were assigned specific objectives that they were to achieve. Light guns would first blast holes in the prickly barbed wire entanglements that fronted Austrian positions. Brusilov required that there be at least two holes, both measuring about 14 feet.

    With that task accomplished, the artillery would switch to neutralizing any Austrian guns in the enemy forward positions. The Russians knew exactly where Hapsburg gun emplacements were from a combination of prisoner interrogation and aerial reconnaissance.

    Brusilov stipulated that attacks were to consist of at least four waves. The first wave would be armed with rifles and hand grenades. Its task was to take the Austrians’ first trench line and neutralize any Austrian guns that escaped Russian bombardment. The second wave would follow the first, advancing 200 paces behind. The second wave was entrusted with the most important assignment of all, which was the capture of the second line of Austrian trenches.

    “We have to consider that our opponent normally places the strength of his defense in the second line, and therefore troops halting in the first line serve only to concentrate the enemy’s fire,” said Brusilov. Thus, it was of vital importance that the second line to taken as rapidly as possible. The second line was the backbone of the Austrian defense system. Once the second line was carried, Brusilov believed the remaining lines would fall more easily.

    At that point, a Russian third wave would fan out and exploit the success. The troops would bring forward their machine guns to prevent any attempt by enemy forces to repair the breech in their lines. A fourth wave would consist of light cavalry, such as the dreaded Cossacks. These expert horsemen would ride deep into the enemy’s rear.

    Cossack cavalry constituted a fourth wave of the Russian attack force. The expert horsemen rode deep into the enemy’s rear wreaking havoc.

    Brusilov issued a directive to his subordinate commanders on April 19, 1916, that detailed his concepts and methods and how they would be carried out. He planned to launch the offensive along the entire 250-mile length of the Russian Southwestern Front, which stretched from the Romanian border in the south to the Styr River in the north. It was an ambitious undertaking.

    The attacking troops had two key objectives: Lutsk and Kovel, both important railroad junctions. In addition, his four army commanders would be free to choose which segment of the front they wished to attack. Brusilov stipulated that the segment chosen ideally would be from nine to 12 miles wide however, it could be a minimum of six miles wide or a maximum of 18 miles wide.

    There was another factor in Brusilov’s favor. It was something that could not be measured by lists of men and armaments. This was the sheer contempt the Germans and Austrians held for their Russian foes. Just two days before Brusilov launched his offensive, Colonel Paulus von Stoltzmann, General Alexander von Linsingen’s chief of staff, dismissed any notion of a Russian attack. “The Russians lacked sufficient numbers, relied on stupid tactics, and thus had absolutely no chance of success,” he said.

    Austrian preoccupation with Italy and the Italian Front also played a role in Vienna’s complacency. General Conrad von Hotzendorff, chief of the Austrian general staff, considered Russia a broken reed, still capable of some fighting but no longer a viable threat. Instead, he focused his attention on the frontier between Northern Italy and the Austro-Hungarian Empire where the Italians and Austrians were locked in a bloody, high-altitude struggle in Alpine mountains and valleys.

    Italy had been an ally of Austria, but when the war broke out the country declared its neutrality. After a series of complex negotiations Italy joined the Allies in 1915, hoping in the end to be rewarded with parts of the Tyrol and territory on the Dalmatian coast. This sudden about face enraged Hotzendorff and most other Austrians. To him, as to other Austrians, this was betrayal, and he was obsessed with punishing a country that in his eyes showed so much deceit.

    This Italian obsession was to bear bitter fruit for the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The combination of contempt for the Russians and desire for revenge against the Italians created an environment that was likely to bring Austria-Hungary to the brink of total collapse. Hotzendorff compounded the problem by transferring battle-tested units from the Eastern Front to the Tyrolean (Italian) Front and replacing them with battalions that were mediocre at best. What is more, he transferred nearly all of the Austrian heavy artillery, approximately 15 batteries, to the Tyrol.

    The Imperial Austro-Hungarian Army was a reflection of the empire at large, a polyglot force in which as many as 15 languages were spoken. The lingua franca of the empire’s armed forces was German otherwise, the average Hapsburg soldier spoke his native tongue. By 1916 the Austro-Hungarian officer corps had been reduced by 50 percent as a result of casualties incurred since the beginning of the war. Many of these were prewar officers who had taken it upon themselves to learn the language of their ethnic commands, yet by mid-war they were gone.

    The Austrians were pleased, even complacent, about their defensive arrangements on the Eastern Front. They had constructed a formidable layered defense in the region around Lutsk that serves as a good example of what the Russians would be up against. The layered defense in this sector consisted of three lines of heavily fortified trenches. A 40-foot-wide belt of barbed wire fronted the Austrian position. The Austrian generals had placed the bulk of their infantry in the rear trenches where they were protected in huge concrete-reinforced dugouts. These steps were taken to ensure that the Russian artillery would not inflict serious casualties on the vulnerable infantry.

    Austro-Hungarian pickets stand watch. Machine gun nests were placed to cover causeways through swampy land.

    The Austrians positioned their field artillery behind the first line of trenches. The first trench line, which bordered the no-man’s land between the armies, was protected with earthen berms punctuated by concrete-reinforced positions for machine guns placed to deliver enfilade fire. The field artillery was situated behind the first line of trenches. The field artillery had to be within 3,000 yards of the first line of Russian trenches to be effective.

    The Austrian troops lived a pleasant life at the front, with all the proverbial comforts of home nearby. The soldiers had at their disposal bakeries, sausage factories, and equipment for pickling and smoking meat. They even planted vegetable gardens and grew their own grain. To minimize the strain of hauling equipment, they used dogs to pull sleighs on which they put weapons and supplies.

    Thus, the Austrian Eastern Front defenses were well planned and designed. “They were beautifully constructed of great timbers, concrete, and earth,” noted one observer. “In some places, steel rails had ben cemented into place as protection against shell fire.”

    The Russian Southwestern Front comprised four armies: General Alexsei Kaledin’s Eighth Army, General Vladimir Sakharov’s Eleventh Army, General Dmitri Scherbatschev’s Seventh Army, and General Platon Letschitski’s Ninth Army.

    The Central Powers had two major army groups on the Eastern Front: Army Group Linsingen and Army Group Bohm-Ermolli. Archduke Joseph Ferdinand’s Fourth Army, which technically was part of Group Linsingen, held the ground just south of the Pripet Marshes. In the coming offensive, the Russians would mount some of their heaviest attacks against this army.

    Army Group Bohm-Ermilli consisted of two armies: the First and the Second. General Paul Puhallo von Brlog’s First Army held the position to the immediate right of the Fourth Army. By contrast, the Second Austro-Hungarian Army held the front between Dubno and a point north of the Tarnopol-Lemberg railway. The Central Powers front was rounded out by General Karl von Pfanzer-Baltin’s Seventh Army and General Karl von Bothmer’s South Army, the latter predictably the Central Powers’ anchor to the far south.

    The great Brusilov Offensive began at 4 am on June 4, 1916. General Kaledin’s Russian Eighth Army on Brusilov’s right wing at Volhynia offers a good impression of the opening stages of the attack. The Eighth Army comprised the Eighth, Thirty-Ninth, and Fortieth Corps. The three corps fielded a combined strength of 100 battalions. The Eighth Army was deployed on a front about 30 miles long for its advance toward Lutsk, which was its main objective. Their opponents were Archduke Ferdinand’s Fourth Army.

    Kaledin’s artillery opened up at the appointed time. No fewer than 420 heavy guns and howitzers pummeled the Austrian trench lines with uncanny accuracy. The rain of shells tore apart trenches and eviscerated Austrians unlucky enough to be in the vicinity, transforming a formerly quiet sector into a nightmarish scene. Other shells gouged out large craters, sending fine particles of sandy soil skyward in great clouds. After five hours, the guns fell silent.

    At that point, the brown-uniformed Russian infantry began a steady advance forward. The Russian Eighth Army’s main thrust was led by the 102nd Reserve Infantry Division and the 2nd Rifle Division. The troops were eager to engage the enemy after weeks of practice and training.

    When the dazed Austrian troops moved into the first trench following the shelling, and peered ahead into no-man’s land, they expected to see a typical attack unfold similar to those that had occurred throughout the first two years of the war. Long skeins of Russian infantry would advance from a distance, indistinct brown streaks on the horizon that would gradually morph into lines of Russian soldiers, bayonets fixed, advancing at the run. Thousands of Russians shouting “Urrah!” above the din of battle would be mowed down by Austrian machine guns. During their long and dangerous advance, the Russian infantry would be in range of the enemy machine guns the entire time.

    But this time, as if by magic, the Russian soldiers were much closer. It was here that meticulous Russian planning started to produce results. Unseen by the Austrians in the previous weeks, the Russians had tunneled close to the enemy. The Russians poured out of vast, man-made caves that held as many as 1,000 men. Some of the tunnel entrances were as close as 50 paces from the Austrian first trench.

    A Russian soldier killed during the campaign that ultimately lost its momentum.

    Worse still, the Austrians discovered that the fine-grained sandy soil that had been kicked up by the previous bombardment had clogged their machine guns, rending them inoperable. Much of the Austrian artillery was similarly clogged, and its crews desperately tried to limber the guns and escape before being engulfed by the Russian tide.

    As they emerged from their underground bunkers, Russian soldiers were met by bearded Orthodox priests carrying icons and religious banners. The blessings bolstered the already deep religious faith the average Russian soldier had in God and the czar. The spirit of “Bozhe, Tsarya Kharani” (“God Save the Czar”) pervaded all ranks.

    The Austrian Fourth Army headquarters was located at Stavok, a small town near the front lines. Seeing what was happening, the headquarters staff jumped in their vehicles and sped off to avoid capture. Abandoning his royal dignity, Archduke Joseph Ferdinand fled the sector when the Russians drew close to Lutsk.

    In a curious throwback to another era, someone produced the Fourth Army regimental standard. This colorful flag was emblazoned with the black double-headed eagle of the Hapsburg dynasty. The individual waved it back and forth as a rallying point. Amazingly, it did rally a handful of Austrians, and they fought hand to hand until they were swept away by the Russian advance.

    The Russians had overrun all three Austrian trench lines by nightfall. The demoralized Hapsburg defenders were in full retreat. In the first two trenches, three quarters of Hapsburg casualties had been from gun or artillery fire in the third trench line, the defenders simply surrendered.

    By June 6 the Austrians had been pushed behind the Styr River, and a few days later Lutsk, one of the main objectives of the Russian effort, had fallen to the czar’s troops. In the first two days the Russians had captured 77 guns and 50,000 men.

    But Brusilov’s successes could only go so far. Indeed, his success was dependent on actions taken by his colleagues in the Northern and Northwestern Fronts. General Evert of the Northwestern Front, never an enthusiastic supporter of Brusilov’s plan, dragged his heels and refused to launch his own attack. The delay compromised the Russian offensive, but nothing seemed to get Evert to move more rapidly. He finally launched a tardy attack on June 18, an incredible two weeks after Brusilov’s opening moves.

    It was almost as if Evert was working for the Central Powers, because the delays allowed the German high command to send reinforcements to the threatened areas. German Chief of Staff Erick von Falkenhayn talked his Austrian counterpart, Conrad von Hotzendorff, into transferring troops from the Italian Front to the Eastern Front. The Germans might have been caught napping, but the somnolent mood was quickly dispelled. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg, who commanded the Eastern Front forces, used more efficient railways to speed German reinforcements to the threatened front.

    The Germans on the Eastern Front were also proving much harder to overcome than their Austrian allies. The German Army was probably the best in Europe when the conflict began in 1914, and in spite of heavy casualties on the Eastern and Western Fronts it was still a formidable adversary. The Germans were well trained, disciplined, and led by professionals imbued with a tradition of excellence that stretched back to the 18th century and Frederick the Great. The German Army was also ethnically homogeneous, sharing fundamentally the same basic language and culture. The German commanders did not have to worry about ethnic minorities trying to desert as soon as they had an opportunity.

    German General Felix Ludwig Von Bothmer’s South Army slowed Brusilov’s advance, as did General Alexander von Linsingen’s troops on the Russian right in the vicinity of Kovel. The Germans fought well. When they did have to retreat, they did so with discipline. Their morale was far better than that of the disintegrating Hapsburg forces.

    The multi-ethnic nature of the Austro-Hungarian army is demonstrated by this image showing volunteer Albanians marching past regular infantry.

    By mid-July, the Austrian Army had become so disrupted by Brusilov’s Offensive that they conceded strategic planning to the Germans. From that point forward, all strategical decisions on the Eastern Front came from the Germans.

    The Russians had made enormous gains, and at that point it would have been wise to consolidate their territorial gains and brace themselves for the inevitable German counterthrusts. As it was, the Russian advance in the sector south of Kovel had ground to a halt. But Brusilov’s superiors pressured him to continue his advance. They believed that if Brusilov continued to press his attack he just might succeed in knocking Austria-Hungary out the war. It was a matter of human nature. The Russians believed that one more push might achieve victory over the Austrians.

    The second phase of the Brusilov Offensive began on July 28 and continued into September. Once again the Russian Army enjoyed an initial period of success. By early September Brusilov’s troops had advanced an average of 60 miles into enemy territory. In some locations they succeeded in advancing up to 100 miles. Almost all of Bukovina was taken, as well as sizable chucks of Galicia. During this impressive advance the Russians had captured 350,000 Austrian prisoners, 400 artillery pieces, and 1,300 machine guns.

    Eventually, however, the Russian offensive wound down. German resistance had gradually been stiffening, and keeping up the momentum made it increasingly difficult for the Russian armies to stay supplied so deep in enemy territory. This was because the railroads in Eastern Europe were not as developed as those in Western Europe. Basically, the Russians used transport methods from the Napoleonic Era.

    Stanley Washburn, a war correspondent covering the Brusilov Offensive, gave a graphic picture of the logistics involved. “Miles and miles of peasants’ carts bearing food, provender, huge loaves of bread, were succeeded by four-horse wagons piled high with regimental and staff baggage,” wrote Washburn. “These, in turn, turned aside to let the field telegraph outfit pass… Perhaps behind them a long column of two-wheeled, two-horse carts holding small arms ammunition passed tumultuously over rough cobbled stones.”

    Yet this rattling, axle-groaning procession had to give way to long columns of brown-clad troops marching to the front. The wagons had to pull over to the side of the road to let the infantry go past, battalion after battalion of men whose scissoring legs kicked up great billowing clouds of dust. Indeed, Washburn noted that the soldiers tanned faces had become “gray with the fine, white dust of the road.”

    Those dry conditions were bad enough, but the roads turned into a viscous soup when pummeled by sudden thunderstorms. Washburn was lucky in that he was riding in that rarity of rarities on the Eastern Front, an automobile, but even a car could get into trouble. During a nocturnal thunderstorm, the reporter had an almost surreal experience.

    “In two minutes we were wallowing in mud six inches deep, with wheels spinning and smoking tires filling the air with the smell of superheated rubber,” he recalled. “One instant the entire landscape would be thrown into vivid relief by the flash of lightning, and the next, half blinded by the glare, we would be staring into blackness.”

    Encouraged by Russian successes, Romania entered the war that same August. But joining the Allies proved to be a debacle for both the Romanians and the Russians. Romania hoped to have a share of spoils when Austria collapsed, particularly the region of Transylvania. Unfortunately for the Romanians, the Germans had long anticipated such a move and had planned accordingly. The Romanians initially invaded Transylvania, occupying almost all of the territory, but their triumph was brief. In a series of deft strokes the Germans sent the ill-prepared Romanian Army back over its own border the Romanian soldiers hardly knew what hit them.

    Having sown the wind, the Romanians reaped the whirlwind. The Germans invaded Romania proper, defeating its army and occupying the whole country. A remnant of the Romanian forces managed to retreat to Moldavia, but few countries had been vanquished as quickly as Romania. The catastrophe also gave Russia additional woes. From that point forward, Russia’s front with the Central Powers was considerably lengthened.

    In the meantime, Stavka added two new armies to Brusilov’s command. These were the Russian Third Army and Guards Army. The Guards were among the most elite in the Imperial Russian Army. The Preobazhensky and Semenovsky Guards had impressive pedigrees that stretched back to their formation by Czar Peter the Great in the 17th century.

    The Guards were ordered to capture Kovel. On paper, at least, it seemed as if these elite warriors, of whom there were 60,000, would be able to fulfill their assignment. Unfortunately, it was a tradition for Guards units to be officered by aristocrats indeed, even Romanov royalty usually had a stint in the Guards. Nicholas had served in the Guards when he was heir to the throne two decades earlier. But most of these bluebloods took little interest in real soldiering, although there were notable exceptions.

    To many Guards officers, life in the military was mainly a time to drink, socialize, and womanize. General Vladimir Bezobrazov, an old comrade from the czar’s own military stint, declared that the Guards should only be “commanded by people of class.” He also was on record saying that the Guards never retreated.

    This kind of romantic attitude might have worked in the preceding centuries, but it was a wrong-headed anachronism in the fire and blood of World War I. The Germans harbored no romantic illusions at Kovel, and they knew how to use the terrain to their best advantage. The low-lying area was one vast swamp.

    There were three causeways across the swampy land, each dotted with German machine-gun nests. Attacking troops would have to run a gauntlet of fire—a storm of lead so intense that nothing would likely survive. Although the Russians might have undertaken a flank attack, such a maneuver was a time-consuming process besides, it was deemed too cowardly for the upper-class Guards. Grand Duke Paul Romanov, the czar’s uncle and the Guards’ commander, gave his approval for the assault.

    The Guards would attack along each of the three causeways. The results were predictably horrific. The very cream of the Russian Imperial Army was sacrificed uselessly in a series of costly, headlong attacks. Some of the Guardsmen jumped off the raised paths and into the swamps, seeking shelter from the hail of bullets. But many who chose that option were quickly sucked under water by the quicksand-like muck. Some managed to wade through the muck only to be picked off by German rifle fire.

    The surviving Guards somehow managed to get across and establish a bridgehead on the Kovel side. An attempt to send the cavalry across to enlarge their toehold failed because the troopers, who were unnerved by the slaughter, flatly refused to advance. Without support the bridgehead was doomed to failure. The survivors were forced to abandon their hard-won gains and retreat back over the causeways to their starting points.

    These elite soldiers had suffered dreadfully. For all intents and purposes, the Guards regiments were so decimated they practically ceased to exist. They suffered a casualty rate of 70 percent. Even Czar Nicholas was shocked out of his usual apathetic stupor. Bezobrazov “ordered an advance across bogs known to be impregnable,” Nicholas wrote to his wife. “His rashness … let the Guards be slaughtered.”

    Bezobrazov was relieved of his command, but the damage was done. The Guards were the “praetorians” of the monarchy who would defend the Romanovs in times of trouble. But now the defenders had been uselessly slaughtered. Those who survived the ordeal were bitter and resentful. When the Russian Revolution broke out in 1917, the Guards mutinied and joined the revolution.

    The Russian offensive began to lose steam, and it did not help that there was no real commander in chief to coordinate the army’s moves and furnish direction by keeping close watch on strategic and tactical developments. Czar Nicholas, the nominal commander in chief, was completely unqualified for the high post he occupied. He had assumed control at the urging of Czarina Alexandra, who had unrealistic fantasies of her husband as a “war lord.”

    Nicholas did approve of the offensive, but he then retreated into a kind of apathetic trance. The czar, who had taken on more than he could handle, was exhausted and, some believed, on the verge of a nervous breakdown. He was increasingly incoherent. “Brusilov is firm and calm,” said Nicholas, adding, “Yesterday I discovered two acacia in the garden.” It probably did not help that he was taking a mixture of henbane and hashish in tea to calm his nerves.

    Worse still, at least from the viewpoint of the Romanov dynasty, Nicholas was at Stavka headquarters, roughly 500 miles from the capital at St. Petersburg. That meant that Alexandra ruled in his place, and her unofficial appointment was an unmitigated disaster. She was emotionally unstable, picking ministers on advice from the disreputable mystic Rasputin.

    By September 20 the Brusilov offensive had exhausted its momentum. The Russians had achieved some tremendous successes, yet at a horrific cost in lives. In the Brusilov Offensive, the Russians suffered at least 500,000 killed, wounded, or captured. Some sources put Russian losses as high as one million men. In comparison, the Austrians lost upward of 1.5 million men.

    In three years of war on the Eastern Front, Russian losses had been catastrophic. Both the Russian military and the Russian people had reached the limit of what they could endure. The following year they would cast off the chains of autocracy and rise up in rebellion against the Romanovs.


    How to Build a Barbed-Wire Fence

    In 1876 salesman John W. Gates brought barbed wire to Texas when he wagered $1 million that he could build a fence that would capably contain cattle. Some incredulous gambler took the bet. Gates erected a fence in San Antonio&rsquos Military Plaza and shocked a gathered crowd as a herd of enclosed Longhorns backed away from eight thin strands of spiky wire. &ldquoThat was a turning point,&rdquo says Davie Gipson, the curator of the Devil&rsquos Rope Barbed Wire Museum, in McLean. &ldquoWhen barbed wire came along, it stopped open-range traveling the way Indians and cattlemen knew it.&rdquo It also caused some thorny relations: While farmers enjoyed better crop protection, ranchers despised the constricted spaces, and soon range wars (and wire-cutter manufacturers) boomed. Today, however, barbed wire remains the simplest and most popular way to mark your rightful territory and manage your mooing moneymakers.

    The WIRE

    There are more than 570 patented wire styles, many equipped with fancy barbs, but down-to-earth ranchers use the two- or four-point varieties. Because metal weakens when exposed to fertilizers or elements like humidity and sand, manufacturers offer a range of protective coatings which one you choose will depend on your needs and your wallet. According to Brian Cowdrey, a veteran fenceman who works for the League City&ndashbased American Fence and Supply Company, class I galvanization, the least expensive, has the thinnest finish and the shortest life span&mdashusually eight to ten years&mdashwhile class III has a heavier coating that prevents rust for at least twenty years. A spool generally holds 1,320 feet, and most ranchers opt for twelve-and-a-half-gauge, double-stranded wire.

    The POSTS

    A fence is only as good as its posts. Invest in metal or a durable, treated wood. Or, for an authentic look, repurpose downed native trees, like cedar. The typical post measures four to eight inches wide and eight feet long. Since lengths of taut barbed wire exert heavy pressure, take care to anchor your posts well: Holes should be dug at least two feet deep (for extra stability, secure them with poured concrete) and placed roughly eight to fifteen feet apart. &ldquoThe key to any fence is your corner, or end, posts,&rdquo Cowdrey says. &ldquoYou need to brace them so the wire doesn&rsquot pull your fence down.&rdquo Brace each end post using a piece of wood nailed horizontally between it and its adjacent posts, then run a length of wire diagonally between the posts to strengthen the corner.

    The ASSEMBLY

    After reviewing an aerial map of your property and drawing a blueprint of your intended boundaries, install the posts, then lay out the wire along the inside of the perimeter. Fasten your first strand near the top of a corner post. Walk to the next corner and, using a wire stretcher (available at most hardware stores), tighten the line, then staple it to the post there. Next, fasten the wire to each intermediate post. &ldquoDon&rsquot drive the staple all the way in,&rdquo Cowdrey cautions. &ldquoYou want room for the wire to expand and contract.&rdquo Repeat with each strand, working from top to bottom. &ldquoAnimals will stick their heads just about anywhere for that next blade of grass,&rdquo Cowdrey says, so make sure you add enough strands to stop them (at least eight for goats, at least four for cattle). You know what people say about good fences. Watch the experts teach Andrea Valdez how to build a barbed-wire fence.


    Barbed Wire

    By the 1870s westward expansion of the agricultural frontier across the Great Plains had been halted by the lack of adequate fencing material to protect crops from cattle. Texas substitutes for the stone and wood fences common in the East included ditches, mud fences, and thorny hedges, the most popular being those of Osage orange or bois d'arc. Bois d'arc is native to Texas and Arkansas, and export of its seed was an early enterprise in Texas. Hedges of it were claimed to be "pig tight, horse high, and bull strong." Experiments with varieties of thorn hedges and smooth wire failed to solve the problems of plains ranchers and farmers, however, and so their features were combined into barbed wire fences.

    On November 24, 1874, Joseph F. Glidden of DeKalb, Illinois, was granted a patent for fencing material consisting of barbs wrapped around a single strand of wire and held in place by twisting that strand around another. Known as the "Winner," this was the most commercially successful of the hundreds of eventual barbed wire designs. Another DeKalb inventor, Jacob Haish, who had applied for a patent on a similar "S barb" design earlier in 1874, undertook a protracted legal battle that failed to halt the progress of the Glidden design. In partnership with Isaac L. Ellwood, Glidden sold his interests, which included other barbed wire patents, to the Massachusetts wire manufacturer Washburn and Moen in May 1876. Ellwood remained an active partner in the new organization as sole agent and distributor for the South and West. Washburn and Moen, eventually absorbed by United States Steel Corporation, had acquired all major barbed wire patents, except that of Haish, by 1876, thus achieving a near-monopoly on this important product.

    Henry Bradley Sanborn traveled to Texas in 1875 as representative of Glidden and Ellwood's Barbed Fence Company. Though he sold the first barbed wire in the state, he failed to exploit the large potential market. In 1876 salesman Pete McManus with his partner John Warne (Bet-a-Million) Gates conducted a famous demonstration on Alamo Plaza in San Antonio in which a fence of Glidden's "Winner" wire restrained a herd of longhorn cattle. Gates reportedly touted the product as "light as air, stronger than whiskey, and cheap as dirt." Sales grew quickly thereafter, and barbed wire permanently changed land uses and land values in Texas.

    Charles Goodnight, a pioneer of the open plains, fenced along the Palo Duro Canyon, accepting the need for clear title to grazing rights and hence the eventual end of the open range. Enclosure of the open range upon which the early cattle industry had been based resulted in the fence-cutting conflicts of the early 1880s. More controlled livestock breeding was made possible by the enclosure of herds, thus virtually eliminating the demand for the longhorn cattle, which were most suited to the open range. The wire simultaneously contributed to the end of the long cattle drives and Indian raids. Barbed wire, still an essential tool in the livestock industry, is today a popular collector's item. The official depository of the papers of the Texas Barbed Wire Collectors Association is the Panhandle-Plains Historical Museum in Canyon.

    Robert T. Clifton, Barbs, Prongs, Points, Prickers, and Stickers (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1970). Historical Marker Files, Texas Historical Commission Library, Austin (Barbed Wire Demonstration). Frank W. Jennings, San Antonio: The Story of an Enchanted City (San Antonio: San Antonio Express&ndashNews, 1998). Henry D. and Frances T. McCallum, The Wire That Fenced the West (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1965). Walter Prescott Webb, The Great Plains (Boston: Ginn, 1931).


    The front line trenches were generally about 8 feet deep and between 4 and 6 feet wide. Soldiers would spend around a week in the front line trench then would spend a week in the rear trenches or a rest camp. Life at the front line was not pleasant soldiers were liable to be hit by enemy fire or sometimes by their own artillery. The soldier in the picture is standing on a fire-step – built to enable men to see out of the trench and also to climb out to venture into no-man’s land.


    Other fort series

    Elsewhere in World War II many fortifications similar to these two basic types were built. The Italians constructed a series of new fortifications and modernized existing World War I defenses along the country’s mountainous northern and northeastern frontiers the Finns maintained a World War I defense facing the Soviet Union, the Mannerheim Line (named after a Finnish marshal and statesman) the Soviets built the Stalin Line facing Poland the Czechoslovaks constructed what became known as the Little Maginot Line to oppose Germany the Greeks built the Metaxas Line facing Bulgaria and the Belgians erected a series of elaborate forts along the Albert Canal. German capture of the most elaborate and allegedly impregnable of the Belgian forts, Eben Emael, in a matter of hours in the first two days of the campaign against France and the Low Countries in 1940 startled the world. Arriving silently on the night of May 10 in gliders, troops landed atop the fort and began systematically to destroy turrets and casemates. Soon after daylight they were joined by 300 men arriving by parachute. Around noon of May 11 the 1,000-man garrison surrendered.

    Despite at least comparable surprise and the same so-called blitzkrieg methods, the Germans required more time to penetrate the more dispersed forts of the Stalin Line in the Soviet Union. The delay gained two months of invaluable time for the Soviet troops, without which they might well have been unable to stop the Germans at the gates of Moscow.


    The Legacy of Trench Warfare

    Due in part to the Allies' use of tanks in the last year of the war, the stalemate was finally broken. By the time the armistice was signed on November 11, 1918, an estimated 8.5 million men (on all fronts) had lost their lives in the so-called "war to end all wars." Yet many survivors who returned home would never be the same, whether their wounds were physical or emotional.

    By the end of World War I, trench warfare had become the very symbol of futility thus, it has been a tactic intentionally avoided by modern-day military strategists in favor of movement, surveillance, and airpower.