Saint Guthlac

Saint Guthlac


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Saint Guthlac, Pahlawan dan Pertapa

2020 menandakan ulang tahun ke-20 penubuhan Persatuan Sejarah Tempatan Thurcaston dan Cropston. Kami menyambut ulang tahun ini dengan segelas ceria pada awal pertemuan pertama tahun 2020 ini, yang juga merupakan pertemuan pertama kami di tempat baru kami, Dewan Peringatan Thurcaston. (Keahlian telah meningkat selama bertahun-tahun sehingga kita perlu mengubah tempat kita!) Dengan bertambahnya ruang, kita dapat memanfaatkan papan paparan kita, dengan fokus pada dua artefak Saxon, yang ditemui secara tempatan oleh mendiang Mr Brian Kimberley dan menderma olehnya untuk menjaga Persatuan. Senang ada ruang untuk melihat mereka dan mengetahui semua tentang mereka.

Mesyuarat kami memberi tumpuan Saint Guthlac, Pahlawan dan Pertapa. Speaker Douglas Clinton memperkenalkan kami kepada orang suci 'tempatan' ini melalui garis masa dan pohon keluarganya. Guthlac (c. 674 - 714) adalah putera seorang bangsawan di kerajaan Mercia Inggeris. Adiknya, Pega juga dihormati sebagai Orang Suci. Sebagai seorang pemuda, Guthlac berperang dalam tentera Æthelred dari Mercia, memerangi Inggeris di sempadan Wales. Pada usia 24 tahun, dia menjadi biksu di Biara Repton, Derbyshire. Dua tahun kemudian dia berusaha menjalani kehidupan seorang pertapa, pindah ke pulau Croyland, sekarang Crowland, pada Hari St Bartholomew AD 699. Crowland ketika itu adalah pulau yang tidak berpenghuni, hanya dapat diakses dengan kapal, dan jauh di kawasan rawa liar dan sepi memisahkan Mercia dan Anglia Timur. Di sini Guthlac membina tempat perlindungan, dipotong di sisi gundukan kuburan, di mana dia tinggal dengan tenang sepanjang hidupnya. Kita diberitahu bahawa dia diseksa oleh iblis, tetapi dihibur oleh penglihatan malaikat. Reputasinya untuk kesucian dan untuk melakukan penyembuhan ajaib tersebar jauh dan terus berkembang setelah kematiannya. (Untuk banyak pengetahuan kami tentang Guthlac, kami berhutang budi kepada Saint Felix, teman seumur hidupnya, yang biografi Guthlac ditulis sekitar tahun 735.)

Saudara perempuan Guthlac, Pega menjadi sauh, dan, menurut seorang penulis abad ketiga belas, pada awalnya tinggal berhampiran Guthlac di Crowland. Pada suatu ketika, nampaknya, syaitan itu mengambil bentuknya dan berusaha untuk meyakinkan Guthlac untuk memungkiri sumpahnya untuk tidak makan sebelum matahari terbenam. Untuk mengelakkan percubaan lebih lanjut seperti ini, Guthlac memerintahkan Pega untuk meninggalkan pulau itu. Dia melakukannya, dan mereka tidak pernah bertemu lagi. Dia menjadi orang persendirian di kejiranan Crowland, dan Peakirk, Gereja Pega, dinamakan untuknya. Hari Perayaan St. Guthlac adalah 11 April. Dia sering digambarkan dengan St. Bartholomew, penaungnya, yang memberinya bencana untuk melakukan penebusan dosa dan mengalahkan iblis.

Beberapa gereja Leicestershire dan Lincolnshire dikhaskan untuk St Guthlac, terakhir gereja St Guthlac di Knighton, Leicester. Knighton terletak di pinggir paling utara Guthlaxton, seratus kuno Leicestershire. Pada masa Buku Domesday, Guthlaxton adalah salah satu daripada empat wapentake Leicestershire, sebuah daerah pentadbiran Anglo-Saxon. Ia meliputi kawasan yang luas, termasuk Market Bosworth, Hinckley, Lutterworth dan Wigston Magna. Tempat pertemuan asal wapentake adalah di 'Guthlac's stone', yang nampaknya terletak di sebelah Fosse Way.


Albion saya

Ini adalah catatan yang sangat menarik! Terdapat artikel berguna oleh George Henderson (& # 39Citra St Guthlac of Crowland & # 39 di & # 39Ingland in the Thirteenth-Century & # 39, ed. WM Ormrod (Woodbridge, 1985)) yang membincangkan perbezaan antara ikonografi Roll Guthlac dan Felix & Vita - contohnya, momok di mana Guthlac mengusir setan, yang diberikan kepadanya oleh St Bartholomew, tidak muncul dalam hagiografi awal tetapi menonjol dalam pelbagai penggambaran Guthlac kemudian, termasuk meterai Abbot of Crowland. Adakah anda tahu sama ada perkara biasa bagi pertapa untuk melawan syaitan dengan senjata seperti itu?

Terima kasih, dan terima kasih atas tip membaca anda! Saya mula-mula menyedari Guthlac semasa mempelajari Lytlyngton Missal of Westminster abad ke-14, di mana saya perhatikan bahawa dia berkongsi beberapa item liturgi dengan Edward the Confessor, dan saya benar-benar ingin membaca lebih banyak mengenai dia. Terima kasih sekali lagi!

Sayangnya saya tidak banyak mengetahui tentang orang suci pertapa. Bidang kepakaran saya (walaupun saya tidak akan menyebut diri saya pakar) adalah orang-orang suci kerajaan dan mereka sama sekali berbeza, walaupun saling merangkul rasa rendah hati dan - terutama dalam kes Edward the Confessor - orang Paulin merendahkan hal-hal duniawi. Akibatnya, saya tidak tahu sama ada orang suci pertapa lain juga mengangkat senjata, sebagaimana adanya, terhadap penyiksa mereka. Saya fikir kemenangan dalam kes-kes ini secara umum dicapai melalui ketahanan dan bukannya penentangan aktif, tetapi akan sangat menarik untuk melakukan kajian perbandingan luas mengenai ikonografi pertapa.


Kamus Biografi Nasional, 1885-1900 / Guthlac

GUTHLAC, Saint (673? –714), adalah putra Penwald, seorang yang berpangkat dan kaya di negeri Sudut Tengah, dan Tette, isterinya. Penwald mirip dengan rumah kerajaan Mercia, keturunan dari Icel, salah satu nenek moyang raja-raja Mercian. Ahli biografi Guthlac, Felix, bertarikh kelahirannya pada pemerintahan Æthelred, raja Mercia (675-704) tetapi ketika dia kelihatan berusia empat puluh satu tahun ketika dia meninggal pada tahun 714, dia pasti dilahirkan pada tahun 673, dua tahun sebelum aksesi Æthelred. Legenda menceritakan bagaimana tanda dari surga menandakan kelahirannya. Nama yang dibaptisnya berasal dari suku, Guthlacingas yang artinya, 'pahala pertempuran,' kemudian diterapkan pada pertempuran rohani dan pahala mereka. Anak lelaki itu tumbuh dengan berwajah cantik, cerdas, lembut dan halus. Pada masa mudanya, bagaimanapun, dia dipengaruhi oleh semangat ketenteraannya pada suatu ketika dia berada di pengasingan di kalangan orang-orang Britain dan pada tahun 688, sepertinya, dia mengumpulkannya sekumpulan rakan-rakan bangsawannya yang muda dan terjun selama sembilan tahun bertahun-tahun ke dalam kehidupan pejuang liar hari ini. Tetapi ada peringatan ke dalam yang membuatnya selalu mengembalikan sepertiga dari rampasannya, dan suatu malam dorongan yang lebih kuat mendorongnya untuk bersumpah bahawa jika dilepaskan hingga keesokan harinya dia akan mengabdikan diri kepada Tuhan. Peringatan pengikut dan rakan-rakannya gagal menggoyahkan ketetapannya, dia pergi ke Repton, di mana Abbess Ælfthryth sepertinya telah memerintah dua kali ganda lelaki dan wanita, dan di sana, pada usia dua puluh empat tahun, menjadi seorang biarawan. Kesungguhannya untuk menahan diri dari semua minuman keras menimbulkan rasa kesal kepada saudara-saudaranya, tetapi dia segera memenangkan kasih sayang mereka. Dia mengabdikan diri untuk belajar buku, dan dalam dua tahun dia belajar semua mazmur, pantulan, pujian, dan doa yang digunakan dalam layanan paduan suara. Kemudian, dibangkitkan oleh kisah-kisah yang diceritakan dan dibaca di biara dengan keinginan untuk hidup seorang pertapa, dia berangkat ke wilayah paling terpencil di seluruh Britain, kawasan yang luas yang membentuk tanah tanpa manusia antara Mercia dan East Anglia, Seorang lelaki bernama Tatwine memberitahunya tentang sebuah pulau yang sangat suram sehingga tidak ada yang berani untuk tinggal di dalamnya. Guthlac sekaligus, dengan Tatwine untuk panduannya, berjalan dengan menaiki perahu menuju Welland ke Crowland di tengah-tengah kawasan fen, Setelah melakukan kunjungan perpisahan selama tiga bulan kepada para bhikkhu Repton, yang dia berhenti tanpa cuti- mengambil, dia kembali untuk tinggal di Crowland dengan dua hamba, yang pasti membantunya dalam mengusahakan tanah. Dia menetap di Crowland pada hari St. Bartholomew, 24 Ogos, nampaknya pada tahun 699. Dia membina sebuah pondok di sisi gundukan lama, yang seharusnya dihantui, dan di sana selama lima belas tahun dia menjalani kehidupan seorang pertapa, yang berpakaian lapisan kulit, makan dan minum apa-apa kecuali roti barli dan air, dan itu tetapi sekali sehari, setelah matahari terbenam, dan disiksa oleh penglihatan iblis dari mana dia diselamatkan oleh pelindungnya, St. Bartholomew. Namun, setelah beberapa tahun, percubaan ini berhenti burung dan ikan kini menjadi teman pertapa, dan seorang imam bernama Beccel atau Becceline datang dan memohon agar dia membawanya untuk sarjana. Ketenaran Guthlac tersebar luas, dan imam tergoda untuk membunuhnya dan menghormati dirinya sendiri. Dia merenungkan kejahatan itu sambil mencukur tonjolan Guthlac, ketika permintaan mendadak dari korban yang dimaksudkan menyebabkan dia bertobat dan menjadi hamba yang setia. Dia kemudian menceritakan bagaimana setiap hari dia mendengar Guthlac bercakap dengan pengunjung yang tidak kelihatan, yang diakui oleh Guthlac di ranjang kematiannya sebagai malaikat. Jemaah haji dari semua kelas mula mengunjungi pertapa. Salah seorang tetamunya adalah Uskup Hedda, mungkin Hedda, uskup Lichfield, 691-721 yang sangat terkesan dengan kesucian dan kebijaksanaan Guthlac sehingga dia meminta izin untuk menahbiskannya sebagai imam. Guthlac mengizinkan, dan pentahbisan itu berlaku sekaligus di pidato pertapa, yang sepertinya telah dikuduskan oleh uskup pada kesempatan yang sama. Pelawat yang sering berkunjung adalah seorang biarawati bernama Wilfrith. Wilfrith membawa Æthelbald, keponakan Penda, yang diasingkan oleh Ceolred, raja Mercia, dan berlindung dengan Guthlac. Setelah tinggal lima belas tahun di Crowlaud, Guthlac jatuh sakit ketika sedang solat pada hari Rabu sebelum Paskah, dan memberitahu Beccel bahawa dia harus mati dalam tujuh hari. Dia dapat pada hari ketujuh untuk memberikan petunjuk terakhirnya bahawa dia harus dikuburkan oleh tangan saudaranya Pege, juga penumpang, dalam selimut linen dan keranda timah yang dihantar kepadanya oleh Ecgburh, seorang puteri Anglian Timur, kini menjadi ketua Repton. Dia meninggal pada hari Rabu pada minggu Paskah, 715, menurut penulis biografinya Felix tetapi bahasa Inggeris 'Chronicle,' dengan kemungkinan besar, menyebabkan kematiannya pada tahun 714. Pada 714 hari Rabu setelah Paskah jatuh pada 11 April, yang merupakan hari yang ditahbiskan oleh Gereja Inggeris untuk ingatan Guthlac. Beccel sekaligus menaiki kapal dan memenuhi misinya ke Pege, dan tiga hari kemudian pertapa itu dikuburkan di gereja kecilnya sendiri sesuai dengan keinginannya. Setahun kemudian Pege meletakkan jenazah di sebuah kuil, yang kemudian menjadi objek ziarah yang terkenal. Di antara jemaah yang paling awal berjemaah adalah Æthelbald, yang masuk ke takhta Mercian pada tahun 716 memenuhi ramalan Guthlac dan bangunan yang dipeliharanya atas peninggalan Guthlac tumbuh menjadi Biara Crowland.


Rekod terperinci untuk Harley Y 6

Walter de Gray Birch dan Henry Jenner, Lukisan dan Ilustrasi Awal: Pengenalan Kajian Manuskrip Bergambar (London: Bagster and Sons, 1879), hlm. 4.

[George Warner], Pengeluaran semula dari Manuskrip Bercahaya, Siri I, (London: British Museum, 1907), pl. 8.

John Alexander Herbert, Manuskrip Terang (London: Methuen, 1911), hlm. 140.

H. Vassall, 'Sketsa St Guthlac seperti yang diterbitkan semula di tingkap Perpustakaan Sekolah Repton', Jurnal Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, 35 (1913), hlm. 247 ff.

Egerton Beck, 'The Crozier in Heraldry and Ornament', Majalah Burlington untuk Penasihat, 24 (1914), 335-40 (ms 338, rajah 7).

W.R. Lethaby, 'The Guthlac Roll', Majalah Burlington, 31 (1917), hlm.147 ff.

[John Alexander Herbert], Manuskrip dan Ikatan Manuskrip yang Terlihat yang Dipamerkan di Perpustakaan Grenville, Panduan untuk Manuskrip yang Dipamerkan, 3 (Oxford: British Museum, 1923), No. 17.

George Warner, Gulungan Guthlac (London: Roxburghe Club, 1928) [faksimili].

Panduan untuk Pameran Seni Bahasa Inggeris yang dikumpulkan dari Pelbagai Jabatan dan diadakan di Galeri Cetakan dan Lukisan (London: Muzium British, 1934), No. 99.

Francis Wormald, 'Beberapa Manuskrip Ilustrasi Kehidupan Orang Suci', Buletin Perpustakaan John Rylands, 35 (1952), 248-66 (hlm. 262-63).

Richard Branner, 'Le rouleau de Saint loi', Maklumat de l Histoire de l Art, 12 (1967), hlm. 65.

Derek Howard Turner, Manuskrip Terang Dipamerkan di Perpustakaan Grenville (London, 1967), tidak. 11.

M. W. Evans, Lukisan Abad Pertengahan (London: Hamlyn, 1969), tidak. 91.

D. H. Farmer, 'Guthlac von Crowland', Lexikon der christlichen Iknongraphie, 6 (1974), kol. 466.

Joanthan G. Alexander, 'Zaman Pertengahan', dalam Genius Lukisan Inggeris, ed. oleh David Piper (London: Weidenfeld dan Nicolson, 1975), hlm. 36.

Carl Nordenfalk, 'Heaven and Hell in a Bohemian Bible of the First Thirteenth Century' di Tahun 1200: Simposium (New York: Muzium Seni Metropolitan, 1975), hlm. 283-300 (rajah 11).

Benediktin di Britain, British Library Series, 3 (London: British Library, 1980), No. 35 [katalog pameran].

Nigel Morgan, Manuskrip Gothic Awal, 2 jilid, Satu Kajian Manuskrip yang Diterangi di Kepulauan British, 4 (London Harvey Miller, 1982-1988), saya: 1190-1250, tidak. 22.

George Henderson, 'Citra St Guthlac of Crowland' di England pada abad ketiga belas: Prosiding Simposium Harlaxton 1984, ed. oleh W.M. Ormrod (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1985), hlm. 85.

Age of Chivalry: Seni di Plantagenet England 1200-1400 ed. oleh Jonathan J. G. Alexander dan Paul Binski (London: Royal Academy of Arts, 1987), no. 37 [katalog pameran].

Suzanne Lewis, Seni Matius Paris di Chronica Majora (Aldershot: Scolar Press, 1987), hlm.10, 30.

Charles Kightly, Cermin Wales Abad Pertengahan: Gerald of Wales dan Perjalanannya pada tahun 1188 (Cardiff: Cadw, 1988), hlm. 85.

Kimberly Kelly, 'Faktor-faktor Di Sebalik Penghasilan Roll Guthlac', Athanor, 7 (1989), 1-13.

Michael T. Clanchy, Dari Memory ke Record Written: England 1066-1307 (Oxford: Blackwell, 1993), hlm. 257, 384-85, dan penutup depan.

Peter C. Jupp dan Clare Gittings, Kematian di England: Sejarah yang Tergambarkan (Manchester: University of Manschester Press, 1999), gambar. 36.

Michelle P. Brown, Marvels of the West: Giraldus Cambrensis dan Peranan Pengarang dalam Pengembangan Ilustrasi Marginal , dalam Hiasan dan Ilustrasi dalam Manuskrip Inggeris Abad Pertengahan, ed. oleh A. S. G. Edwards, Kajian Manuskrip Inggeris 1100-1700, 10 (London: British Library, 2002), hlm 34-59 (hlm. 39).

Alfred Hiatt, Pembuatan Pemalsuan Abad Pertengahan: Dokumen Palsu di Fifteenth-Century England (London: Perpustakaan British, 2004), hlm. 42-43, rajah. 4.

The Cambridge Illuminations: Sepuluh Abad Pengeluaran Buku di Zaman Pertengahan Barat, ed. oleh Paul Binski dan Stella Panayotova (London: Harvey Miller, 2005), hlm. 310.

John Black, 'Tradisi dan Transformasi dalam Kultus St. Guthlac di Awal Abad Pertengahan England', Zaman Pahlawan: Jurnal Eropah Barat Laut Abad Pertengahan, 10 (2007), 1-21 (hlm. 10) http://www.mun.ca/mst/heroicage/issues/10/black.html> [diakses pada 19 Disember 2008].

Michelle Brown, Alkitab Holkham: Faksimili (London, Perpustakaan British, 2007), h. 11.

Deirdre Jackson, Hebat untuk Lihat: Keajaiban dalam Manuskrip Abad Pertengahan (London: Perpustakaan British, 2007), ms 45-46.

Joe Flatman, Penghantaran dan Penghantaran dalam Manuskrip Abad Pertengahan (London: Perpustakaan British, 2009), pl. 22.


Saint Guthlac - Sejarah

SAINT PEGA DAN SAINT GUTHLAC

DI LEGENDARI BAHASA INGGERIS SELATAN

                          Perincian Gambar Harleian Guthlac Roll Y.6. Dengan Kebenaran Perpustakaan Inggeris. Pembiakan Dilarang.


                          t Guthlac (w. 716) dan St Pega (w. 719) adalah dua orang suci Anglo-Saxon awal, saudara dan saudari seperti banyak orang kudus terkenal (St Benedict of Nursia dan St Scholastica, misalnya). Manfred G rlach mengulas bahawa pemujaan Guthlac wujud di "kawasan larangan" (159) berhampiran Croyland Abbey, yang didirikan setelah kematian Guthlac di lokasi pertapaannya. Sembilan gereja masih ada yang dulunya didedikasikan untuk orang suci, dan Gereja St Pega di Peakirk didedikasikan untuk adiknya.

                          Walaupun kawasannya terbatas, pemujaan Guthlac penting sepanjang Abad Pertengahan, dan legendanya terus berkembang hingga akhir abad keempat belas atau awal abad kelima belas ketika manuskrip terbaru dari Legendary Inggeris Selatan yang merangkumi Kehidupan Guthlac disalin (lihat Bolton, 170- 71). Pega, bagaimanapun, hampir hilang dari sejarah yang tercatat. Dia adalah watak bisu dalam Felix's Vita Sancti Guthlaci, yang melaporkan tidak ada ucapannya walaupun dia menguburkan Guthlac dan kemudian mengangkat peninggalannya. Donald Atwater Kitab Orang Suci Penguin tidak mempunyai entri berasingan untuk Pega tetapi merujuk pembaca untuk entri di Guthlac. Tidak satu pun dari tiga naskah versi Legenda yang merangkumi Kehidupan Guthlac sertakan kehidupan terpisah dari Pega walaupun lima belas naskah merangkumi kehidupan bebas St. Scholastica (lihat G rlach, 307). Penyebutan pertama dia dalam Kehidupan Guthlac Anglo-Saxon, Felix's Vita , berlaku ketika Guthlac yang mati memerintahkan hamba-Nya Beccel (yang diberi garis dialog), "Perge ad sororem meam Pegam, et dicas illi quia ideo aspekum ipsius in hoc saeculo vitavi, ut in aeternum coram Patre nostro in gaudio semptiterno ad invicem videamur "(154-55) [Pergilah kepada saudaraku, Pega dan katakan padanya bahawa aku dalam hidup ini menghindari kehadirannya sehingga dalam kekekalan kita dapat melihat satu sama lain di hadapan Bapa kita di tengah kegembiraan abadi]. Hanya yang tertua Lagenda versi Life of Guthlac, Cotton Junius D.ix, mengandungi episod ini. Versi Cotton Junius adalah akaun Guthlac terpanjang (292 baris) dan paling lengkap, dan ia adalah yang paling hampir dengan Felix's Vita. Guthlac yang mati "Betel. Het gon / to sosternya at Pege het" (Bolton, 194) dan memberitahunya tentang kematiannya, dan Beccel melakukannya:

                          Bettel goe sone ford selepas is holi de e
                          kepada sosternya Pege untuk melakukan dia dia sede
                          jadi at hi come bo e a3en.
                          dan pastikan dia adil. (Bolton, 195)

                          Namun, kita tahu dari karya Latin bahawa kisah Pega masih berkembang pada abad ketiga belas. Terdapat episod yang terdapat dalam beberapa karya Latin akhir-akhir ini di mana syaitan mengambil bentuk Pega, yang awalnya tinggal di Croyland bersama Guthlac, dan menggoda Guthlac untuk memungkiri sumpahnya untuk tidak pernah makan sebelum matahari terbenam, dengan hasilnya Guthlac meminta Pega untuk meninggalkan pulau dan tidak pernah melihatnya lagi. Kisah ini terdapat pada abad ketiga belas Matthew Paris Chronica Maiora dan mungkin telah diketahui oleh penulis Inggeris abad ketiga belas kerana terdapat dalam manuskrip Cambridge ULC Dd.xi.78. Teks ini menyatakan bahawa syaitan "Pe3am simulans" (Bolton, 67) [meniru Pega] menggoda Guthlac dan itu, sebagai akibatnya, saudara dan saudari berpisah. Sudah tentu mungkin untuk memasukkan Kehidupan St Pega di Legenda Inggeris Selatan .

                          Legenda Guthlac terus berkembang dalam bahasa Latin dan Inggeris. Versi Legenda Kehidupan Guthlac hanya terdapat dalam tiga naskah kerana, seperti yang dikatakan oleh G rlach, Legenda "dihubungkan dengan kawasan di luar kawasan larangan kultus Guthlac" (159), dan tidak ada dalam edisi moden dari EETS. Peninggalan ini bermaksud bahawa para sarjana moden hanya mempunyai pemahaman separa mengenai seorang wali Anglo-Saxon yang penting dan perkembangan legenda beliau. The Legenda Inggeris Selatan kehidupan St Guthlac diedit oleh Whitney F. Bolton sebagai disertasi doktoralnya, yang tidak pernah diterbitkan. Bahan Guthlac juga terdapat dalam edisi Jerman yang jarang ditemui oleh Hans Forstmann.

                          Tiga naskah yang mengandungi versi legenda St Guthlac adalah British Museum Cotton Junius D.ix (akhir abad keempat belas), Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 145 (akhir abad keempat belas hingga 1420), dan Bodleian 779 (akhir abad keempat belas hingga awal abad kelima belas). Sumber utama mereka adalah awal abad kelapan Felix Vita Sancti Guthlaci. G rlach percaya bahawa "gaya Felix yang indah dan bercita-cita tinggi disesuaikan dengan nada SEL" (159). Dia mengutip "persamaan dalam kata-kata" (159) termasuk ungkapan dalam Cotton Junius yang mengatakan bahawa ketika syaitan menyeret Guthlac melalui duri "dia nas noman ilich" (273) berbeza dengan Felix, yang mengatakan mereka "dilaceratis membrorum" ( 102-3) [mengoyakkan anggota badannya]. Contoh lain berlaku ketika Felix menggambarkan matahari terbenam pada hari kelahiran Guthlac: "priusquam luciflula solis astra occidus finibus vegeretur" (76-77) [sebelum kemuliaan bersinar matahari telah tenggelam di cakrawala barat]. The Legendary hanya mengatakan, "ar the sonne 3ede to grounde" (Bolton, 184). Versi Cotton Junius adalah yang paling hampir dengan Felix's Vita, tetapi sangat disingkat. Lima puluh ratus halaman prosa Latin menjadi hanya 292 baris ayat Bahasa Inggeris Tengah, dan dua versi lain lebih pendek (masing-masing 104 dan 174 baris).

                          Kecuali untuk perbezaan diksi kecil, ketiga versi bermula dengan 38 baris yang sama dan mempunyai petikan 24 baris mengenai kelahiran Guthlac, yang menyebutkan bahawa dia dilahirkan "menjadi e kinges dai dari Engelond A eldre e king" dan bahawa ia ibu bapa adalah "Penwald" dan "Tette" (Bolton, 184). Mereka juga memasukkan apa yang Felix sebut sebagai "prodigium divinum" (74-75) [keajaiban surgawi] yang menandakan kelahiran Guthlac, "humana manus croceo rubri nitoris splendore fulgenscens ab aetheris Olimpi nubibus ad patibulum cuiusdam crucis ante ostium domus" (74-75) [tangan manusia dilihat bersinar dengan kemegahan merah emas, dan menjangkau dari awan Olympus surgawi sejauh lengan salib tertentu, yang berdiri di depan pintu rumah]. Petikan ini memberikan contoh apa yang dimaksudkan oleh G rlach dengan "Felix's flowery, ambitious style" (159). Sebaliknya, Legenda memaparkan episod itu secara sederhana. Di Cotton Junius, petikan berjalan seperti berikut:

                          o at kanak-kanak berasal dari e eir op an hey
                          seekor anjing merah dan orang yang dikenali sebagai at folc ysey
                          ali3te dan memberkati sesuai sebagai jadi wanita jnne dulu. (Bolton, 184)

                          The Lagenda versi mengikuti Felix's Vita, tetapi ia juga mempunyai beberapa perbezaan penting, termasuk pernyataan Felix yang terperinci bahawa Guthlac adalah seorang bhikkhu di Repton "bis denis bis binisque alternatium mensium circulis" (86-87) [empat dan dua puluh bulan] sebelum memutuskan untuk menjadi pertapa menjadi " empat dan tuenti 3er "(Bolton, 29). Walaupun Bolton merasakan bahawa ketiga-tiga versi itu sangat berbeza sehingga "mereka mungkin digambarkan sebagai tiga puisi dengan tema yang serupa, dan bukannya tiga versi dari satu puisi" (175), ketiga-tiganya berkongsi penggantian tahun selama berbulan-bulan dan yang lain penting ciri-ciri. Versi sebenarnya sangat mirip hingga akhir ketika masing-masing menyingkat kisah kematian Guthlac tetapi melakukannya dengan cara yang berbeza.

                          Saya ingin menunjukkan bahawa versi legenda Guthlac sangat mirip untuk menolak cadangan Bolton bahawa mereka adalah tiga puisi yang berbeza. Saya juga ingin berbeza dengan cadangan Katharine G. McMahon bahawa Lagenda adalah "sebahagian daripada tradisi sastera barat daya" (19) yang ditulis. Bolton, sebenarnya, menyatakan bahawa semua versi termasuk "tag formula" (178), yang telah terbukti sebagai tanda penyebaran lisan. Penyair Cotton Junius memberikan petunjuk yang jelas bahawa karyanya ditujukan untuk penyampaian lisan kerana dia dua kali berbicara kepada penontonnya: "jch wene so wolde ech of 3ou at hadde ibe wit him ere" and "for God er nis non of 3ou "(Bolton, 189). Saya percaya bahawa ketiga-tiga versi bahan Guthlac menunjukkan tanda-tanda penularan lisan dan itu adalah jenis karya yang sumbernya celik dan Latin tetapi disusun secara lisan dalam bahasa vernakular. Karya ini merupakan sebahagian daripada interaksi yang kompleks dan kaya antara budaya Latin dan Inggeris.

                          The Lagenda versi Life of Guthlac menterjemahkan prosa Latin Felix - sumber bertulis yang tepat - sebagai ayat berirama yang menunjukkan penyebaran lisan. Sajak itu sama dalam ketiga versi apabila bahannya sama, tetapi barisnya sering berbeza dengan cara yang tidak dapat diramalkan. Petikan yang disebutkan di atas mengenai keajaiban semasa kelahiran Guthlac mempunyai kata-kata berirama yang sama dalam ketiga-tiga teks, yang memungkinkan perbezaan dialek: "hey" dan "ysey" dan "was" dan "cas". Namun, manuskrip Cotton Junius telah menghilangkan "was", dan seorang editor harus memberikannya untuk "melengkapkan. Baik sajak dan akal" (Bolton, 197). Sajak adalah apa yang William A. Quinn dan Audley S. Hall sebut sebagai "sistematik" dan "dapat diramalkan," sebahagian daripada "perbendaharaan kata berima yang telah ditetapkan" (8) yang memungkinkan karya itu disusun dan disebarkan secara lisan. Namun, garis-garis itu sendiri berbeza dengan cara yang sesuai dengan komposisi lisan dan bukannya tulisan. Tag formulaic mengakhiri baris pertama petikan Cotton Junius mengatakan "as at folc ysey" (Bolton, 184) dan Corpus Christi College "alle volk hi sey3" (Bolton, 221). Namun, Bodleian mengatakan "telanjang seperti at folk jsey3" (Bolton, 210). Penambahan "telanjang" adalah jenis penggantian yang jarang dibuat oleh penyair yang celik huruf, yang mencari le mot juste, dan "telanjang" tidak menambah maklumat penting pada baris tersebut dan juga menambahkan suku kata ketiga belas pada baris suku kata dua belas. Ini adalah jenis penggantian yang menunjukkan bahawa puisi ini adalah penyusunan semula dari beberapa versi asli yang dibuat oleh penyair yang dilatih dalam teknik komposisi lisan-formula. Sangat menarik bahawa Bodleian adalah manuskrip terbaru, kerana kata-kata cenderung ditambahkan pada baris dalam puisi versi akhir. Sekiranya kita menganggap bahawa Cotton Junius paling dekat dengan puisi asalnya kerana paling dekat dengan Felix, adalah menarik bahawa versi lain sering menambahkan kata-kata ke garis. Sebagai contoh, Cotton Junius memberitahu kita bahawa tangan merah itu kembali ke Syurga setelah secara ajaibnya mengumumkan kelahiran Guthlac: "su e fley op a3en" (10). Di Bodleian, tangan "su e fley vp an hy," dan "hy" tidak menambah maklumat penting ke garis. Corpus Christi College memberikan varian ketiga baris, "dan anon vly3 up a3eyn" (Bolton, 221), dan penggantian "anon" untuk "su e" tidak bermaksud bahawa ketiga-tiga versi itu adalah puisi yang terpisah. Ketiga-tiga baris menyampaikan maklumat yang sama, tetapi dengan cara yang sedikit berbeza.

                          Jelas bahawa kultus dan legenda Guthlac masih berkembang ketika South English Legendary disusun kerana terdapat beberapa perbezaan isi antara versi. Semua insiden di Cotton Junius didasarkan pada Felix, tetapi ini tidak berlaku dengan dua versi lain, yang masing-masing mempunyai insiden yang hanya terdapat di dalamnya dan tidak di Felix atau versi lain. Menurut Corpus Christi College, lelaki yang memandu Guthlac ke Croyland diberi pakaian orang suci sebagai ganti janjinya untuk meninggalkannya " re loues of clene barlich dibesarkan" (Bolton, 223) sebulan, dan petikan itu menempati tujuh baris daripada 174 dalam manuskrip. Petikan lain, yang panjangnya dua puluh tiga baris, berlaku ketika syaitan cuba "mengikat [Guthlac] menjadi glotenye" ​​(Bolton, 227). Bahagian yang unik untuk Bodleian hanya empat baris, yang tidak mengejutkan dalam versi yang pendek. Ini menggambarkan bagaimana Guthlac hidup dalam kekudusan dan pengajaran setelah menaklukkan syaitan:

                          dan dengan dia meminjamkan wang 3er jn deserte satu ere
                          dan melupakan e worldes ioye dan Cristes kata dia gan lere
                          ke hem at kepada dia woldin datang dan sekeping hem bede
                          dia berusaha untuk melakukan dan selamat menjalani kehidupan. (Bolton, 214)

                          Penghayatan yang tepat terhadap pemujaan Guthlac dan tempatnya dalam sejarah Inggeris bergantung pada pengetahuan teks-teks ini. Klaus Janofsky mencadangkan bahawa pengarang Lagenda "menghendaki penontonnya melihat dan merasakan bagaimana kehidupan Kristiani dan bagaimana itu bermanfaat. Dia memberikan jawapan yang halus. untuk persoalan yang hebat. Bagaimana cara hidup? (77)." The Kehidupan Guthlac memberikan jawapan sedemikian.

                          Atwater, Donald. Kamus Suci Penguin. Baltimore: Penguin, 1965.

                          Bolton, Whitney F., "Puisi Inggeris Tengah dan Latin Saint Guthlac." Diss .: Princeton, 1954.

                          Colgrave, Bertram. Kehidupan Felix dari Saint Guthlac. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1956.

                          D'Evelyn, Charlotte dan Anna J. Mill, ed. The South English Legendary . EETS 235, 236, dan 244. London:
                          EETS, 1956.

                          Forstmann, Hans. Untersuchungen zur Guthlac-Legende. Bonner Beitr ge aur Anglistik, 12 (1902).

                          G rlach, Manfred. Tradisi Teks dari Legenda Inggeris Selatan . Leeds: U of Leeds, 1974.

                          Horstmann, Carl, ed. The Legendary Bahasa Inggeris Awal Selatan. EETS 87. London: Tr bner, 1887.

                          Jankofsky, Klaus P., ed. "Daktikisme Peribadi: Interaksi Narator dan Perkara Subjek dalam Legenda Inggeris Selatan." Pengajian Universiti Texas A & amp I 10 (1977): 69-77.

                          Olsen, Alexandra H. Guthlac dari Croyland: Kajian Hagiografi Pahlawan . Washington: University Press of America, 1981.

                          Matthew Paris. Chronica majora. Ed. Henry Richards Luard. Rolls Series 57 (1872).

                          McMahon, Katherine G. "St. Scholastica - Bukan Isteri!" Di Jankofsky, The South English Legendary: Penilaian Kritikal. T bingen: Francke, 1992. Pp. 18-28.

                          Quinn, William A. dan Audley S. Hall. Jongleur: Teori Modifikasi Peningkatan Oral dan Pengaruhnya terhadap Prestasi dan Penghantaran Romantik Bahasa Inggeris Tengah. Washington: UP of America, 1982.

                          Guthlac Tiba di Croyland. Harleian Guthlac Roll Y.6. Dengan Kebenaran Perpustakaan British. Pembiakan Dilarang.

                          'Pega soror Guthlaci' Harus Meninggalkan Croyland. (Seorang pencatat masa kemudian menambah cermin mata kepada Guthlac dan kepada perahu, yang juga diberikannya bulu kepada jubahnya.) Harleian Guthlac Roll Y.6. Dengan Kebenaran Perpustakaan British. Pembiakan Dilarang.

                          John Sell Cotman, Biara Croyland, 1802

                          Pertapaan St Pega dan Kapelnya, ketika dimiliki oleh Komuniti Keluarga Suci Anglikan, kini dijual dan dinyahbeku

                          Alexandra H. Olsen
                          Jabatan Bahasa Inggeris
                          Universiti Denver
                          Denver, CO 80208


                          Guy of Warwick the Anglo-Norman Guthlac?

                          Sebelum abad kedua puluh, Guy of Warwick berada di antara pahlawan paling popular di dunia Anglophone, bahkan ditempatkan pada satu titik di antara Nine Worthies. Dan tidak sukar untuk membayangkan mengapa, kerana ada sesuatu untuk semua orang dalam kisahnya, kerana dia diperlihatkan sebagai pahlawan hebat dan pembunuh naga yang kemudian menjadi jamaah dan, akhirnya, seorang pertapa.

                          Guy of Warwick sebagai Ksatria. Ilustrasi pengantar kepada salinan Le Rommant de Guy de Warwik et de Herolt d'Ardenne (versi prosa Perancis yang ringkas). London, Perpustakaan Britain, MS Royal 15. E. VI, ff. 227r-272r (Abad ke-15)

                          Guy of Warwick Membunuh Naga, Menyelamatkan Singa. The Taymouth Hours, London, Perpustakaan Britain, MS Yates Thompson 13, f. 14r (sekitar 1331)

                          Naratif pertama kali ditulis di Anglo-Norman tidak lama sebelum tahun 1204 Masehi (Weiss, “Gui de Warewic"7). Membuktikan kejayaan cerita yang panjang, sembilan naskah dan tujuh fragmen bertahan di Anglo-Norman. Salinan lengkap paling awal yang kami ada dalam Bahasa Inggeris Tengah boleh didapati di Manuskrip Auchinleck, Edinburgh, Perpustakaan Nasional Scotland, MS Advocates 19.2.1, bertarikh c. 1330-1340. Dua versi lain yang ada di Cambridge, Gonville dan Caius College, MS 107/176 (sekitar 1470-an) dan Cambridge, Perpustakaan Universiti, MS F.2.28 (sekitar 1479-1484) (Wiggins, "The Manuscripts and Texts") 64). Terdapat dua set serpihan tambahan dalam Bahasa Inggeris Tengah. Satu perkara yang menarik mengenai susun atur teks dalam Manuskrip Auchinleck adalah ia dipisahkan menjadi semacam trilogi, yang terdiri daripada apa yang dikenali sebagai kuplet Lelaki Warwick, merangkumi eksploitasi awal Guy (lih. 108r-146v), stanzaic Lelaki Warwick, menceritakan peristiwa kehidupannya yang kemudian (rujuk 146v-167r), dan Reinbroun, yang berkaitan dengan prestasi anak lelaki Guy (rujuk 167r-175v). Manuskrip Auchinleck juga menyertakan teks yang disebut Spekulum Gy de Warewyke, sebuah risalah homiletik yang menggunakan narasi Guy sebagai bingkai untuk membincangkan dosa-dosa dan pentingnya penyesalan dan penebusan dosa.

                          Keseluruhan Manuskrip Auchinleck, serta harta karun maklumat, boleh didapati dalam talian di sini: https://auchinleck.nls.uk/.

                          Kepentingan budaya Guy meluas di luar England dan Perancis dan juga ke zaman moden awal. Versi Bahasa Inggeris Tengah yang kini hilang kemungkinan dijadikan asas bagi orang Ireland abad kelima belas Beathadh Sir Gyi o Bharbhuic, copied in Dublin, Trinity College Library, MS 1298B, pp. 300-347. What is most remarkable about this version is that it incorporates material from the Spekulum. It is furthermore no secret, for example, that Edmund Spenser’s Guyon from Book II of The Faerie Queene is modeled on Guy of Warwick, and we can also see reflections of Guy in the Redcrosse Knight of Book I (Cooper, “Romance after 1400” 718-719 and The English Romance in Time 92-99). In fact, as Helen Cooper demonstrates, the popularity of the Lelaki narrative continued unabated up through the Victorian era (“Romance after 1400” 704-706).

                          For more on the later life of the Guy of Warwick legend, see Dr. Siân Echard’s page: http://faculty.arts.ubc.ca/sechard/GUY.HTM.

                          So what, you might be asking, is this blockbuster story all about? Well, the narrative tells of Guy, a steward’s son, who falls in love with Felice, the Earl of Warwick’s daughter, and is compelled to climb the social ladder through heroic acts in order to prove himself. Guy has many battles and adventures on the Continent, winning fame and admiration abroad. While in Constantinople, he rescues a lion from a dragon. He also makes a bosom companion in the person of Terri of Worms. On his way back to England, Guy slays the villainous Otun, Duke of Pavia, but he also gets caught up in a confrontation in which he rashly kills the son of Count Florentine. Before returning home to Warwick, Guy helps King Athelstan by slaying a dragon that is ravaging Northumberland. He then marries Felice and fathers a child, Reinbroun. The trajectory is not unlike other romans d’aventure. But once he has fulfilled all of his desires, Guy is suddenly overcome by deep inner turmoil while gazing at the stars one evening, realizing that, as yet, God has had no place in his life. With this, he vows to dedicate himself to holy pursuits and become a pilgrim, expiating by means of his body, as he says, those sins committed by his body, namely the lives of others destroyed and lost through his reckless longing for glory. Upon departing, he gives Felice his sword, and Felice, in turn, gives him a ring to remember her by. (They halve the ring in later versions.) Their parting is a tearful one. In his subsequent travels, Guy, always incognito, makes his way to the Holy Land, aiding and rescuing others, Christian and “Saracen” alike, in many martial exploits. He assists the Saracen King Triamour by vanquishing the giant Amoraunt and, in the process, helps the Christian Earl Jonas and his sons. He also eventually saves his friend Terri by defeating Berard, the likewise treacherous nephew of Otun. Though comparatively little space is given to Felice, she devotes herself to serving her community in Warwickshire through charitable deeds. When Guy makes his final return to England, he aids King Athelstan again, this time preventing a Danish invasion by defeating the giant Colbrond and thus becoming the savior of England. However, he retreats unnoticed to the woods outside of his estate in Warwick. Guy’s desire is to receive religious instruction from another hermit and to live out the rest of his days in contemplation. Guy eventually learns from the Archangel Michael that he has a week left to live (he will die on the eighth day), and so he sends word to Felice as well as his ring (or half-ring) for identification purposes. She comes to him on the point of death, and his soul is soon borne to Heaven by angels. A sweet fragrance issues forth from his body, which (in all versions of the text) is said to be so heavy that it cannot be removed from his hermitage. Felice herself dies soon afterwards. The two are buried together in the hermitage (at least at first) and are said to be reunited in Heaven. The narrative thus shifts from being something like a chanson de geste to something much more hagiographical.

                          The two halves of Guy’s life are clearly displayed in the Rous Roll, which depicts and gives a brief history of each significant family member (historically real or otherwise) of the Beauchamp Earls of Warwick.

                          Guy of Warwick in the Rous Roll. Pictured from left to right are Felice’s father, Felice and her son Reinbroun, Guy of Warwick as a knight with the lion, then Guy of Warwick as penitent pilgrim and vanquisher of Colbrond, then the adult Reinbroun. London, British Library, MS Additional 48976, f. 3ar (c. 1483)

                          Guy’s later life is also the likely subject of two misericords in English cathedrals.

                          Misericord Showing Guy Fighting Colbrond (S03) (c. 1350-1360), Gloucester Cathedral, Gloucester, England Misericord with Felice Giving Alms to the Hermit Guy (SH-16) (c. 1330s), Wells Cathedral, Wells, England

                          A number of literary antecedents to the figure of Guy have been posited. Many scholars, like Judith Weiss, point to the twelfth-century Le Moniage Guillaume (part of the William of Orange cycle) whose main character, Guillaume d’Orange (otherwise known as Guillaume au Court Nez), is a warrior who battles “Saracens” and later becomes a monk and then hermit, fearful for the state of his soul after having killed so many people (“The Exploitation” 44-46). As Angus Kennedy points out, it is also not uncommon in Arthurian romances, for example, for hermit-saints to have previously been members of the chivalric class (72). Both verse and prose French romances alike show a host of knights who choose to retreat from the world and end their days as hermits: the protagonist of Escanor Perceval in Manessier’s Continuation and in the Queste del Saint Graal at least thirteen knights in the Perlesvaus Mordrain and Nascien, King Urien, Girflet, Bors and Hector, and even Lancelot in the Kitaran Vulgate Guiron and his ancestors in Palamède and Pergamon in Perceforest (74-75). References to aristocratic hermits exist in many other texts, particularly Arthurian, but these hermits, as they are presented, are not entirely separated from the world. In fact, they very often still play a role in their societies (think of all of the other hermits in the Queste del Saint Graal) (77-78).

                          To my mind, however, there is an as yet unnoticed parallel with the late-eighth-century Old English lives of St. Guthlac in that invaluable repository of Anglo-Saxon poetry, the Exeter Book (Exeter, Cathedral Library, MS 3501). (For some images, go here. The lives are based, at least in part, on the Latin Vita sancti Guthlaci (between 730 and 749 A.D.) written by a man named Felix, likely a monk, about whom next to nothing is known. Guthlac, though, was born around 673 A.D. into a royal Mercian family and had a military career before becoming a monk at Repton Abbey and then two years later a hermit in the Lincolnshire fens at what is now Crowland (Croyland in the Middle Ages). He died there in 714, and a shrine was erected to commemorate him. Around this eventually grew Crowland Abbey and around this the town (Bradley 248-249).

                          Crowland Abbey, Lincolnshire Quatrefoil Portraying Scenes from St. Guthlac’s Life, Crowland Abbey, Lincolnshire

                          In the Exeter Book’s Guthlac A (ff. 32v-44v), the saint is said to be attacked by demons who try to tempt him into abandoning his hermitage by making him feel guilty for leaving his family. They also seek to make him feel lonely, to crave human company. Guthlac ultimately resists, but we have here the same tensions that we see exhibited in later works like the legend of St. Alexis and Guy’s narrative. The events that are most reminiscent of Guy’s story, however, are those found in Guthlac B (ff. 44v-52v). Guthlac has a servant who attends to him, much as Guy the hermit does as well, and it is to this person that Guthlac makes a prediction, told to him by an angel, that he has eight days left to live (ll. 1034b-1038a). Shortly before his death, Guthlac has the servant boy prepare to seek out his most cherished virgin sister, “wuldres wynmaeg,” to tell her that he has kept apart from her for so long so that he could attain an eternal life, free from imperfections, with her in Heaven (l. 1345a ll. 1175a-1196a). Guthlac dies before his sister, who is to bury him in his hermitage, comes sweet odor issues forth (ll. 1271b-1273a) and his soul is borne to Heaven by angels (ll. 1305a-1306a). We see the same knowledge of impending death delivered by an angelic presence in Gui de Warewic and later versions, many of the very same details regarding Guy’s death, and the sister’s role is easily replaced by the wife’s—which also acts to make familial tensions that much greater. So then, is Guy meant to be a saint? That, dear reader, is a question for another post…or a book.

                          Hannah Zdansky, Ph.D.
                          University of Notre Dame

                          Bibliography (Cited and/or Suggested):

                          N.B. This list is not exhaustive.

                          Sumber Utama (with introductions, notes, and commentary)

                          Boeve de Haumtone and Gui de Warewic: Two Anglo-Norman Romances. Trans. Judith Weiss. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2008. 97-243.

                          Cambridge University Library MS Ff.2.38. Ed. Frances McSparran and P. R. Robinson. London: Scolar Press, 1979.

                          Felix’s Life of Saint Guthlac. Ed. and Trans. Bertram Colgrave. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1956.

                          Gui de Warewic: Roman du XIII e Siècle. Ed. Alfred Ewert. 2 jilid. Paris: Champion, 1932-1933.

                          “Guthlac A.” Anglo-Saxon Poetry. Trans. S. A. J. Bradley. London: Everyman, 1982. 248-268.

                          “Guthlac A.” The Exeter Book. Anglo-Saxon Poetic Records. vol 3. Ed. George Philip Krapp and Elliott van Kirk Dobbie. New York: Columbia University Press, 1936. 49-72.

                          “Guthlac B.” Anglo-Saxon Poetry. Trans. S. A. J. Bradley. London: Everyman, 1982. 269-283.

                          “Guthlac B.” The Exeter Book. Anglo-Saxon Poetic Records. vol 3. Ed. George Philip Krapp and Elliott van Kirk Dobbie. New York: Columbia University Press, 1936. 72-88.

                          Speculum Gy de Warewyke. Ed. Georgiana Lea Morrill. Early English Text Society. e.s. jilid 75. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., 1898.

                          Stanzaic Guy of Warwick. Ed. Alison Wiggins. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, 2004.

                          The Auchinleck Manuscript: National Library of Scotland Advocates’ MS. 19.2.1. Ed. Derek Pearsall and I. C. Cunningham. London: Scolar Press, 1977.

                          The Guthlac Poems of the Exeter Book. Ed. Jane Roberts. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979.

                          “The Irish Lives of Guy of Warwick and Bevis of Hampton.” Ed. and Trans. F. N. Robinson. Zeitschrift für celtische Philologie 6 (1908): 9-338.

                          The Romance of Guy of Warwick. Edited from the Auchinleck MS. in the Advocates’ Library, Edinburgh, and from MS. 107 in Caius College, Cambridge. Ed. Julius Zupitza. Early English Text Society. e.s. vols. 42, 49, 59. London: N. Trübner & Co., 1883, 1887, 1891.

                          The Romance of Guy of Warwick. The Second or 15 th -Century Version. Edited from the Paper MS. Ff.2.38 in the University Library, Cambridge. Ed. Julius Zupitza. Early English Text Society. e.s. vols. 25-26. London: N. Trübner & Co., 1875-1876.

                          Ailes, Marianne. "Gui de Warewic in Its Manuscript Context.” Guy of Warwick: Icon and Ancestor. Ed. Alison Wiggins and Rosalind Field. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2007. 12-26.

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                          Cooper, Helen. “Guy as Early Modern English Hero.” Guy of Warwick: Icon and Ancestor. Ed. Alison Wiggins and Rosalind Field. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2007. 185-200.

                          Cooper, Helen. “Romance after 1400.” The Cambridge History of Medieval English Literature. Ed. David Wallace. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. 690-719.

                          Cooper, Helen. The English Romance in Time: Transforming Motifs from Geoffrey of Monmouth to the Death of Shakespeare. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

                          Crane, Ronald S. “The Vogue of Guy of Warwick from the Close of the Middle Ages to the Romantic Revival.” PMLA 30 (1915): 125-194.

                          Crane, Susan. “Anglo-Norman Romances of English Heroes: ‘Ancestral Romance’?” Romance Philology 35 (1981-1982): 601-608.

                          Crane, Susan. "Guy of Warwick and the Question of Exemplary Romance.” Genre 17 (1984): 351-374.

                          Crane, Susan. Insular Romance: Politics, Faith, and Culture in Anglo-Norman and Middle English Literature. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986.

                          Djordjević, Ivana. "Guy of Warwick as a Translation.” Guy of Warwick: Icon and Ancestor. Ed. Alison Wiggins and Rosalind Field. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2007. 27-43.

                          Djordjević, Ivana. “Nation and Translation: Guy of Warwick between Languages.” Nottingham Medieval Studies 57 (2013): 111-144.

                          Dyas, Dee. Pilgrimage in Medieval English Literature, 700-1500. Woodbridge: D. S. Brewer, 2001.

                          Echard, Siân. “Of Dragons and Saracens: Guy and Bevis in Early Print Illustration.” Guy of Warwick: Icon and Ancestor. Ed. Alison Wiggins and Rosalind Field. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2007. 154-168.

                          Edwards, A. S. G. “The Speculum Guy de Warwick and Lydgate’s Guy of Warwick: The Non-Romance Middle English Tradition.” Guy of Warwick: Icon and Ancestor. Ed. Alison Wiggins and Rosalind Field. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2007. 81-93.

                          Fellows, Jennifer. “Printed Romance in the Sixteenth Century.” A Companion to Medieval Popular Romance. Ed. Raluca L. Radulescu and Cory James Rushton. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 2009. 67-78.

                          Field, Rosalind. “From Gui ke Lelaki: The Fashioning of a Popular Romance.” Guy of Warwick: Icon and Ancestor. Ed. Alison Wiggins and Rosalind Field. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2007. 44-60.

                          Frankis, John. “Taste and Patronage in Late Medieval England as Reflected in Versions of Guy of Warwick.” Medium Aevum 66 (1997): 80-93.

                          Gordon, Sarah. “Translation and Cultural Transformation of a Hero: The Anglo-Norman and Middle English Romances of Guy of Warwick.” The Medieval Translator. Traduire au Moyen Âge. Ed. Jacqueline Jenkins and Olivier Bertrand. Turnhout: Brepols, 2007. 319-331.

                          Gos, Giselle. “New Perspectives on the Reception and Revision of Guy of Warwick in the Fifteenth Century.” Journal of English and Germanic Philology 113 (2014): 156-183.

                          Griffith, David. “The Visual History of Guy of Warwick.” Guy of Warwick: Icon and Ancestor. Ed. Alison Wiggins and Rosalind Field. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2007. 110-132.

                          Hanna, Ralph, III. “Reconsidering the Auchinleck Manuscript.” New Directions in Later Medieval Manuscript Studies: Essays from the 1998 Harvard Conference. Ed. Derek Pearsall. York: York Medieval Press, 2000. 91-102.

                          Hopkins, Andrea. The Sinful Knights: A Study of Middle English Penitential Romance. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990.

                          Kennedy, Angus J. “The Portrayal of the Hermit-Saint in French Arthurian Romance: The Remoulding of a Stock-Character.” An Arthurian Tapestry: Essays in Memory of Lewis Thorpe. Ed. Kenneth Varty. Glasgow: French Department of the University of Glasgow, 1981. 69-82.

                          King, Andrew. "Guy of Warwick dan The Faerie Queene, Book II: Chivalry through the Ages.” Guy of Warwick: Icon and Ancestor. Ed. Alison Wiggins and Rosalind Field. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2007. 169-184.

                          Klausner, David N. “Didacticism and Drama in Guy of Warwick.” Medievalia et Humanistica 6 (1975): 103-119.

                          Legge, Mary Dominica. Anglo-Norman Literature and Its Background. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963.

                          Matthews, David. “Whatever Happened to Your Heroes? Guy and Bevis after the Middle Ages.” The Making of the Middle Ages. Ed. Marios Costambeys. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2007. 54-70.

                          Merisalo, Outi. “La fortune de Gui de Warewic à la fin du Moyen Âge (XV e siècle).” Le Moyen Âge par le Moyen Âge, même: réception, relectures et réécritures des textes médiévaux dans la littérature française des XIV e et XV e siècles. Ed. Laurent Brun and Silvère Menegaldo et al. Paris: Champion, 2012. 239-253.

                          Mills, Maldwyn. “Structure and Meaning in Guy of Warwick.” From Medieval to Medievalism. Ed. John Simons. London: Macmillan, 1992. 54-68.

                          Mills, Maldwyn. “Techniques of Translation in the Middle English Versions of Guy of Warwick.” The Medieval Translator II. Ed. Roger Ellis. London: Centre for Medieval Studies, University of London, 1991. 209-229.

                          Poppe, Erich. “Narrative Structure of Medieval Irish Adaptations: The Case of Lelaki dan Beves.” Medieval Celtic Literature and Society. Ed. Helen Fulton. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2005. 205-229.

                          Price, Paul. “Confessions of a Godless Killer: Guy of Warwick and Comprehensive Entertainment.” Medieval Insular Romance: Translation and Innovation. Ed. Judith Weiss, Jennifer Fellows, and Morgan Dickson. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 2000. 93-110.

                          Richmond, Velma Bourgeois. The Legend of Guy of Warwick. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1996.

                          Rouse, Robert Allen. “An Exemplary Life: Guy of Warwick as Medieval Culture-Hero.” Guy of Warwick: Icon and Ancestor. Ed. Alison Wiggins and Rosalind Field. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2007. 94-109.

                          Shonk, Timothy A. “A Study of the Auchinleck Manuscript: Bookmen and Bookmaking in the Early Fourteenth Century.” Spekulum 60 (1985): 71-91.

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                          Quin, Gordon. Introduction. Stair Ercuil ocus a Bás. The Life and Death of Hercules. Ed. and Trans. Gordon Quin. Dublin: Irish Texts Society, 1939. xiii-xl.

                          Weiss, Judith. "Gui de Warewic at Home and Abroad: A Hero for Europe.” Guy of Warwick: Icon and Ancestor. Ed. Alison Wiggins and Rosalind Field. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2007. 1-11.

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                          Wiggins, Alison. “A Makeover Story: The Caius Manuscript Copy of Guy of Warwick.” Pengajian dalam bidang Filologi 104 (2007): 471-500.

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                          Wiggins, Alison. “Guy of Warwick in Warwick?: Reconsidering the Dialect Evidence.” English Studies 84 (2003): 219-230.

                          Wiggins, Alison. “Imagining the Compiler: Guy of Warwick and the Compilation of the Auchinleck Manuscript.” Imagining the Book. Ed. Stephen Kelly and John J. Thompson. Turnhout: Brepols, 2005.

                          Wiggins, Alison. “The Manuscripts and Texts of the Middle English Guy of Warwick.” Guy of Warwick: Icon and Ancestor. Ed. Alison Wiggins and Rosalind Field. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2007. 61-80.

                          Zupitza, Julius. “Zur Literaturgeschichte des Guy von Warwick.” Sitzungesberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-Historische Classe. jilid 74. no. 1. Vienna: Karl Gerold’s Sohn, 1873. 623-668.


                          Saint Guthlac - History

                          SAINT PEGA AND SAINT GUTHLAC, HERMITS

                          Detail of Harleian Guthlac Roll Y.6 Image. By Permission of the British Library. Reproduction Prohibited.

                          aint Pega (d.719) and Saint Guthlac (c. 674 - 714) were sister and brother, like other famous saints, among them Saint Scholastica and Saint Benedict . Their father was named Penwalh, and the family was related to the royal family of the East Angles.

                          More is known about Saint Guthlac than Saint Pega. Indeed, Donald Atwater's Penguin Book of Saints has no separate entry for Pega but refers the reader to the entry on Guthlac. Their cults were extremely important during the Old and Middle English periods but waned during the late Middle Ages and especially after the Reformation. There are scattered references to Guthlac thereafter. In 1538, for example, a man named John Lambert claimed to have seen "St Guthlake's Psalter" at Crowland Abbey, and the proverb "sweet as Crowland bells" was recorded in 1878 by Samuel Henry Miller, indicating that the saint and the abbey dedicated to him were remembered that late. In 1899, Frances Egerton Arnold-Forster reported that she had seen a statue of Saint Pega in the church dedicated to the saint at Peakirk.

                          Guthlac's death is noted for 714 in the Kronik Anglo-Saxon, but the principal source for information about Guthlac and Pega is the Anglo-Latin Vita sancti Guthlaci , written by Felix soon after Guthlac's death. Felix describes himself as " catholicae congretationis vernaculus " [a servant of the Catholic community] (60-1) acting under the orders of lfwald, king of the East Angles from 713 to 749. The Vita may have been composed for a lay audience even though it is in Latin because it is dedicated to King lfwald and emphasizes Guthlac's noble lineage. Guthlac's heroic sanctity is described in terms reminiscent of Beowulf and would have been of interest to the laity. Later epitomes of the Vita by writers like the early twelfth-century Ordericus Vitalis contain additional information about both Guthlac and Pega which may derive from oral tradition. According to Felix, portents surrounded the birth of Guthlac, who was named " ex appellatione illius tribus, quam dicunt Guthlacingas " [from the name of the tribe known as the Guthlacingas] (76-77). The young Guthlac was inspired by " valida pristinorum heroum facta " [the valiant deeds of heroes of old] (80-81) and served in the army of thelred of Mercia for nine years, gaining war-booty and attracting followers from many parts of the country. At the age of twenty-four, he began to think about the " miserabiles " [wretched] (82-83) deaths of secular heroes, and he underwent a religious conversion. He joined the monastery of Repton, and two years later became an anchorite at Crowland, on an island at the western edge of the Peterborough Fen.

                          Guthlac Arriving at Croyland. Harleian Guthlac Roll Y.6. By Permission of The British Library. Reproduction Prohibited.

                          His sister Pega became an anchorite also, and according to Matthew Paris in the thirteenth-century Chronica Maiora, she originally lived at Crowland with Guthlac. On one occasion, the devil took her form and tried to persuade Guthlac to break his vow never to eat before sunset. To prevent further attempts of this nature, Guthlac ordered Pega to leave the island, and they never met again. She became a solitary in the neighborhood of Crowland, and Peakirk ["Pega's Church"] is named for her.

                          St Pega's Hermitage and Chapel

                          A church was built on the site of her hermitage, and Anglican nuns formerly occupied a hermitage and chapel dedicated to Saint Pega, though this was deconsecrated in 1995 by the Bishop of Peterborough and sold off.

                          'Pega soror Guthlaci' Having to Leave Croyland. (A later scribbler adds spectacles to Guthlac and to the boatman, to whom he also awards a feather for his coif.) Harleian Guthlac Roll Y.6. By Permission of The British Library. Reproduction Prohibited.

                          Guthlac endured many trials and temptations, which Felix relates in terms reminiscent of the Desert Fathers, especially Saint Anthony of Egypt. Several times, Guthlac was rescued from demons by Saint Bartholomew, to whom he had a special devotion. Like many solitaries, Guthlac loved the birds and beasts, even tolerating the thefts of crows and magpies. He was visited three times by his cousin thelbald of Mercia when the latter was in exile and in need of spiritual comfort.

                          When he was dying, Guthlac sent his servant Beccel to Pega, saying " dicas illi, quia ideo aspectum ipsius in hoc saeculo vitavi, ut in aeternum coram Patre nostro in gaudio sempiterno ad invicem videamur " [tell her that I have in this life avoided her presence so that in eternity we may see one another in the presence of our Father amid eternal joys] (154-55). On her way to bury Guthlac, Pega healed a blind man. After praying over Guthlac's body for three days, she buried him " in oratorio suo " [In his oratory] (160). Twelve months later, " inmisit Deus in animum sororis ipsius, ut fraternum corpus alio sepulchro reconderet " [God put it into the heart of his sister to place her brother's body in another sepulchre] (160-61).

                          Mengikut Historia Croylandensis (of which the Historia Ingulfi is the first section), she left Guthlac's Psalter and a scourge given to the saint by Saint Bartholomew in the possession of Abbot Kenulph of Crowland. Finding Guthlac's body incorrupt, Pega placed it in a monument which King thelbald had decorated. According to Ordericus, she went on a pilgrimage to Rome and died there in 719. According to the fourteenth-century Historia Ingulfi , on her arrival in Rome, all the church bells rang to signify her sanctity. Felix says that Guthlac's relics were associated with miracles, and Ordericus recounts the same thing about Pega's relics. He also says that at his time they were kept in a church in Rome that bore her name. A legend known to the Anglican Community of the Holy Family says that Pega was associated with swans.

                          After Guthlac's death, his hermitage was occupied by a converted pagan named Cissa, who was living there when Felix wrote the Vita. Eventually a monastery was built on the site, but its early history is shrouded in legend. In the thirteenth century, Ordericus visited the monastery and recorded a tradition that it had been founded by thelbald, who had confirmed the grant of land he had originally made to Guthlac by a charter (which seems to have been a forgery because it includes anachronisms). Ordericus also says that the monastery was destroyed by the Danes in 870 and refounded in the tenth century there is, however, no evidence that the monastery was founded before the middle of the tenth century. The Tate Gallery possesses a watercolor showing the ruins of Crowland Abbey .

                          John Sell Cotman, Croyland Abbey, 1802

                          Guthlac and Pega are known not only from Latin texts but from those in the vernacular. The earliest is the Old English Martyrology, which its editor, George Herzfeld, dates as early as 850. There are five manuscripts of the Martyrology , of which Herzfeld edited MS Corpus Christi College 41. Like all martyrological entries, these are very brief. That on Guthlac mentions that his birth was marked by signs from Heaven and that an angel of God spoke to him daily while he was a hermit. That on Pega mentions that she healed a blind man with the aid of salt consecrated by Guthlac.

                          Despite the relative scarcity of texts from the Old English period, there are numerous references to Saint Guthlac. For example, both the tenth-century Leofric Missal and the eleventh-century MS British Museum Harleian 1117 contain masses for the Saint's feastday. There are also an eleventh-century Old English translation of the Vita in MS B.M. Cotton Vespasian Dxxi and two chapters of it are given in the manuscript known as the Vercelli Book (circa 1000), the Anglo-Saxon manuscript in which is also the Long Text of the poem of the Dream of the Rood , brought to Italy by a pilgrim. The Cotton Vespasian version simplifies the elaborate language and episodes of the Vita and focuses the reader's attention on Guthlac. For example, it shortens the account of Guthlac's life and childish virtues in order to emphasize his achievements as an anchorite. Although the dying Guthlac does not speak of his sister by name, Pega is referred to as " Cristes eowe Pege " (169) [Christ's servant Pega] (169) when she elevates his incorrupt body. The short untitled excerpt in the Vercelli Book is a translation of chapters 28-32 of Felix's Vita, focusing on the episode where the demons take Guthlac to the mouth of Hell and he is rescued by Saint Bartholomew. While MS Cotton Junius D ix, for example, provides a 292-line version of Felix's Vita, including the fact that the dying Guthlac sends "Betel" (l. 261) to " his soster at Pege het " (l. 263).

                          Most interesting of the works in Old English are two poems (known as "Guthlac A" and "Guthlac B") in the Exeter Book (circa 1000), formerly available on the Web in a digitalized version of the Guthlac A and B edition by George Phillip Krapp and Elliott van Kirk Dobbie. Both are oral-derived works using the formulaic devices found in Beowulf and the poems of Cynewulf, heightening the heroic story that would have been of interest to an Anglo-Saxon audience. "Guthlac A" is based on oral tradition rather than on Felix's Vita. It seems to have been written for a learned, monastic audience and contrasts transitory earthly joy and eternal heavenly joy. It does not develop as a linear narrative but consists of a series of repeated episodes. Because Guthlac lives in a " beorg " [barrow] (148a) that had been inhabited by devils, the poem reminds Anglo-Saxonists of Beowulf even more than Felix's Vita adakah. In addition, "Guthlac A" uses formulaic themes like that of Exile and the Cliff of Death to make its subject matter of interest to an Anglo-Saxon audience. Guthlac is a hero in terms of both the monastic and the secular heroic traditions.

                          Guthlac B" is more closely based on Felix's Vita than is "Guthlac A," but not in a mechanical way. Important images in the poem are death and the Fall, and the poet presents Guthlac's death in a moving way. Death is personified as a warrior attacking Guthlac " hildescurun " [with battle-showers] (1143b), and Guthlac's death itself is depicted in terms of the formulaic theme of the Hero on the Beach. A large portion of "Guthlac B" focuses on Guthlac's " ar " [messenger or servant] (1146a), who is nameless in this version. As in Felix's Vita and its Old English prose translation, Guthlac sends his servant to his " sweostor " [sister] (1179b), but as in the Old English prose, she is nameless in "Guthlac B." As a result of the anonymity of both Pega and Beccel, the poem's focus is on Guthlac as hero. After Guthlac's death, angels carry his soul to " longan gefean " [lasting joy] (1307a), but the conclusion of the poem is lost. The last words of the extant text are a lament by the grieving servant. The poem is elegiac, as is the case of many Old English poems (its tone has been compared to that of the "The Wanderer"), but it reconciles the typically Anglo-Saxon lament for transience and the Christian belief in Heaven.

                          There are a number of interesting works about Guthlac and Pega composed after the Norman Conquest, most remarkable the Harley Roll (MS British Museum Harleian Roll Y.6), eighteen roundels illustrating scenes from the life of Saint Guthlac. [The pictures in this essay are from the Harley Roll, by permission of the British Museum.] Each picture has a short explanation in Latin. The Harley Roll is usually dated to the abbacy of Henry Longchamp, and the earliest date given for its composition is 1141. Many of the works written during the Middle English period deal only with Guthlac, but the Chronicon ex Chronicis of Florence of Worcester (d. 1118) speaks of Guthlac as " virginis Pegi germanus " [the brother of the virgin Pega], leading some scholars to speculate that Florence considered Pega more important than Guthlac.

                          There were numerous churches dedicated to Guthlac, as well as the one at Peakirk dedicated to Pega. Vernacular references to Guthlac become less frequent after the Norman Conquest than they were before. An intriguing one occurs at the end of one version of the fifteenth-century Sir Gowther: 'There he lyeth in a shryne of gold And doth maracles, as it is told, And hatt Seynt Gotlake'.

                          Poems about Guthlac appear in three manuscripts of the work known as the South English Legendary (14th c), but neither of the two modern editions of the collection includes the Guthlac material. Much material about Guthlac and Pega must have been lost at the time of the Dissolution of the Monasteries, although antiquarians in the nineteenth century made important discoveries about the cult of Guthlac, which are relevant to the examination of his legend. Charles Kingsley in his 1868 study of hermits acclaims Guthlac as the spiritual father of the University of Cambridge, and therefore of Harvard University. Interest in Guthlac and Pega has risen in the late twentieth century (for example, Olsen), and perhaps the new Millennium will see a revival of the cults of both of them.

                          Latin quotations and translations are from the standard edition of Felix's Vita:

                          Felix's Life of Saint Guthlac. Ed. and trans., Bertram Colgrave. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

                          Florence of Worcester, Chronicon ex Chronicis, ed. Thorpe. London: Sumptibus Societatis, 1848.
                          Fulman, W. Rerum Anglicarum scriptorum veterum, vol 1. London: E. Theatro Sheldoniae,1684. (Includes Historia Croylandensis)
                          Gonzer, Paul. Das angelschsische Prosa-Leben des hl. Guthlac. Anglistiche Forschungen 27 (1909).
                          Herzfeld, George. An Old English Martyrology. EETS, O.S. 116. Millwood: Kraus Reprint Co., 1975.
                          Historia Ingulfi. Ed. H. T. Riley. London: H.G. Bohn, 1854.
                          Matthew Paris. Chronica Majora . Ed. H. R. Luard. Rolls Series 57 (1872).
                          Ordericus Vitallis. Abbrevatio . MS Douai, Public Library 852. Unpublished.
                          Roberts, Jane, ed. The Guthlac Poems of the Exeter Book. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979.
                          Scragg, D. G. The Vercelli Homilies and Related Texts. EETS, 300. Oxford: University Press, 1992

                          Attwater, Donald. The Penguin Dictionary of Saints. Baltimore: Penguin, 1965.
                          Arnold-Forster, Frances Egerton. Studies in Church Dedications. London: Skeffington and Sons, 1899.
                          Bolton, Whitney F., "The Middle English and Latin Poems of Saint Guthlac," Ph.D. Dissertation. Princeton University, 1954
                          Kingsley, Charles. The Hermits . London: Macmillan, 1868.
                          Miller, Samuel Henry. The Fenland, Past and Present. London: Longmans, 1878.
                          Olsen, Alexandra H. Guthlac of Croyland: A Study of Heroic Hagiography. Washington: University Press of America, 1981.

                          St Pega's Hermitage and its Chapel when owned by the Anglican Community of the Holy Family, now sold off and deconsecrated


                          Guthlac, Saint

                          Guthlac, Saint, hermit b. about 673 d. at Croyland, England, April 11, 714. Our authority for the life of St. Guthlac is the monk Felix (of what monastery is not known), who in his dedication of the “Life” to King Aethelbald, Guthlac’s friend, assures him that whatever he has written, he has derived immediately from old and intimate companions of the saint. Guthlac was born of noble stock, in the land of the Middle Angles. In his boyhood he showed extraordinary signs of piety after eight or nine years spent in warfare, during which he never quite forgot his early training, he became filled with remorse and determined to enter a monastery. This he did at Repton (in what is now Derbyshire). Here after two years of great penance and earnest application to all the duties of the monastic life, he became fired with enthusiasm to emulate the wonderful penance of the Fathers of the Desert. For this purpose he retired with two companions to Croyland, a lonely island in the dismal fenlands of modern Lincolnshire. In this solitude he spent fifteen years of the most rigid penance, fasting daily until sundown and then taking only coarse bread and water. Like St. Anthony, he was frequently attacked and severely maltreated by the Evil One, and on the other hand was the recipient of extraordinary graces and powers. The birds and the fishes became his familiar friends, while the fame of his sanctity brought throngs of pilgrims to his cell. One of them, Bishop Hedda (of Dorchester or of Lichfield), raised him to the priesthood and consecrated his humble chapel. Aethelbald, nephew of the terrible Penda, spent part of his exile with the saint.

                          Guthlac, after his death, in a vision to Aethelbald, revealed to him that he should one day become king. The prophecy was verified in 716. During Holy Week of 714, Guthlac sickened and announced that he should die on the seventh day, which he did joyfully. The anniversary (April 11) has always been kept as his feast. Many miracles were wrought at his tomb, which soon became a center of pilgrimage. His old friend, Aethelbald, on becoming king, proved himself a generous benefactor. Soon a large monastery arose, and through the industry of the monks, the fens of Croyland became one of the richest spots in England. The later history of his shrine may be found in Ordericus Vitalis (Historia Ecclesiastica) and in the “History of Croyland” by the Pseudo-Ingulph. Felix’s Latin “Life” was turned into Anglo-Saxon prose by some unknown hand. This version was first published by Goodwin in 1848. There is also a metrical version attributed to Cynewulf contained in the celebrated Exeter Book (Codex Exoniensis).


                          St. Guthlac

                          Hermit born about 673 died at Croyland, England, 11 April, 714. Our authority for the life of St. Guthlac is the monk Felix (of what monastery is not known), who in his dedication of the "Life" to King Æthelbald, Guthlac's friend, assures him that whatever he has written, he had derived immediately from old and intimate companions of the saint. Guthlac was born of noble stock, in the land of the Middle Angles. In his boyhood he showed extraordinary signs of piety after eight or nine years spent in warfare, during which he never quite forgot his early training, he became filled with remorse and determined to enter a monastery. This he did at Repton (in what is now Derbyshire). Here after two years of great penance and earnest application to all the duties of the monastic life, he became fired with enthusiasm to emulate the wonderful penance of the Fathers of the Desert. For this purpose he retired with two companions to Croyland, a lonely island in the dismal fen- lands of modern Lincolnshire. In this solitude he spent fifteen years of the most rigid penance, fasting daily until sundown and then taking only coarse bread and water. Like St. Anthony he was frequently attacked and severely maltreated by the Evil One, and on the other hand was the recipient of extraordinary graces and powers. The birds and the fishes became his familiar friends, while the fame of his sanctity brought throngs of pilgrims to his cell. One of them, Bishop Hedda (or Dorchester or of Lichfield), raised him to the priesthood and consecrated his humble chapel. Æthelbald, nephew of the terrible Penda, spent part of his exile with the saint.

                          Guthlac, after his death, in a vision to Æthelbald, revealed to him that he should one day become king. The prophecy was verified in 716. During Holy Week of 714, Guthlac sickened and announced that he should die on the seventh day, which he did joyfully. The anniversary (11 April) has always been kept as his feast. Many miracles were wrought at his tomb, which soon became a centre of pilgrimage. His old friend, Æthelbald, on becoming king, proved himself a generous benefactor. Soon a large monastery arose, and through the industry of the monks, the fens of Croyland became one of the richest spots in england. The later history of his shrine may be found in Ordericus Vitalis (Historia Ecclesiastica) and in the "History of Croyland" by the Pseudo-Ingulph. Felix's Latin "Life" was turned into Anglo-Saxon prose by some unknown hand. This version was first published by Goodwin in 1848. There is also a metrical version attributed to Cynewulf contained in the celebrated Exeter Book (Codex Exoniensis).

                          Acta SS., XI, 37, contains FELIX'S chronicle and extracts from ORDERICUS and the PSEUDO-INGULPH FULMAN, ed. Historia Croylandensis dalam R. S. GOODWIN, Anglo-Saxon Version of the Life of Guthlac (London, 1848) THORPE, Codex Exoniensis (London, 1842) GOLLANCZ, The Exeter Book (London, 1895) GALE, edition of INGULPH, though old (1684), is still valuable.


                          Tonton videonya: How The Polynesians Navigated